Wisdom, Knowledge, Understanding and Prophecy-Prophet: Study Material

Clarification and Defining Terms:

Wisdom, Knowledge, Understanding and Prophecy-Prophet:

According to the Holy Bible’s Words to us!

By

Rev. G. L. Boyett

3/9/2015

 OT Hebrew Concordance

http://biblehub.net/searchstrongs.php?q=wisdom

 

Strong’s Hebrew: 8454. תּוּשִׁיָּה (tushiyyah) — sound 

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. תּוּשִׁיָּה noun feminine sound, efficient wisdom, abiding
success (on derivation, see above; according to Fl De proposes 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8454.htm – 21k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2452. חָכְמָה (chokmah) — wisdom

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. חָכְמָה noun feminine wisdom; — ׳ח absolute Daniel 2:30 +,
emphatic תָכְמְתָא Daniel 2:20 +, construct חָכְמַת 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2452.htm – 16k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2454. חָכְמוֹת (chokmoth) — wisdom 

 Strong’s Concordance. chokmoth: wisdom, every wise woman. Original Word: חָכְמוֹת
Part of Speech: Noun Feminine Transliteration: chokmoth Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2454.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2451. חָכְמָה (chokmah) — wisdom

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. חָכְמה noun feminine wisdom, ׳ח Exodus 28:3 106t.;
construct חָכְמַת Exodus 35:35 15t.; suffix חָכְמָתִי 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2451.htm – 43k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3633. כַּלְכֹּל (Kalkol) — an Israelite 

 Strong’s Concordance. Kalkol: an Israelite noted for his wisdom. Original Word:
כַּלְכֹּל Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Kalkol 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3633.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4093. מַדָּע (madda) — knowledge, thought

 2 Chronicles 1:10 HEB: עַתָּ֗ה חָכְמָ֤ה וּמַדָּע֙ תֶּן־ לִ֔י
NAS: wisdom and knowledge, that I may go KJV: me now wisdom and 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4093.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8394. תָּבוּן (tebunah) — an 

 or towbunah {to-boo-naw’}; from biyn; intelligence; by implication, an argument;
by extension, caprice — discretion, reason, skilfulness, understanding, wisdom 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8394.htm – 34k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3504. יִתְרוֹן (yithron) — advantage 

 advantage of knowledge; וְיִתְרוֺן הַכְשֵׁיר חָכְמָה Ecclesiastes
10:10 an advantage for giving success is wisdom; absolute אֵין 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3504.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 936. בּוּז (buz) — to despise

 8:7; יָבֻזוּ Songs 8:1; Infinitive absolute בּוֺז Songs 8:7; Participle Proverbs
11:12 2t.; — despise, shew despite toward (Wisdom Literature & 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/936.htm – 19k

Strong’s Hebrew: 998. בִּינָה (binah) — an understanding

 21. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. knowledge, meaning, perfectly, understanding,
wisdom. From biyn; understanding — knowledge, meaning 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/998.htm – 32k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7922. שֵׂ֫כֶל (sekel) — prudence, insight

 Definition prudence, insight NASB Translation discretion (3), insight (4), intelligent*
(1), repute (1), sense (1), shrewdness (1), understanding (4), wisdom (1 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7922.htm – 24k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4148. מוּסָר (musar) — discipline 

 c. in Proverbs, discipline in the school of wisdom: ׳חכמה ומ Ezekiel
1:2,7; Ezekiel 23:23; חכמה ׳מ discipline of wisdom Ezekiel 15:33 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4148.htm – 36k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3052. יְהַב (yehab) — to give

 Daniel 2:21 HEB: וּמְהָקֵ֣ים מַלְכִ֑ין יָהֵ֤ב חָכְמְתָא֙
לְחַכִּימִ֔ין NAS: kings; He gives wisdom KJV: kings 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3052.htm – 28k

Strong’s Hebrew: 370. מֵאַ֫יִן (ayin) — whence?

 Job 28:12 HEB: וְֽ֭הַחָכְמָה מֵאַ֣יִן תִּמָּצֵ֑א וְאֵ֥י NAS:
But where can wisdom be found?  INT: wisdom where be found how. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/370.htm – 22k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2090. זוֹ (zoh) — this

 Ecclesiastes 7:23 HEB: כָּל־ זֹ֖ה נִסִּ֣יתִי בַֽחָכְמָ֑ה NAS: all
this with wisdom, KJV: All this have I proved by wisdom: INT 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2090.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6239. עֹ֫שֶׁר (osher) — riches

 1 Kings 10:23 HEB: מַלְכֵ֣י הָאָ֑רֶץ לְעֹ֖שֶׁר
וּלְחָכְמָֽה׃ NAS: of the earth in riches and in wisdom
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6239.htm – 30k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1370. גְּבוּרְתָא (geburah) — might

 Daniel 2:20 HEB: דִּ֧י חָכְמְתָ֛א וּגְבוּרְתָ֖א דִּ֥י
לֵֽהּ־ NAS: For wisdom and power belong to Him. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1370.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3308. יֹ֫פִי (yophi) — beauty

 16:14,15,25; Tyre Ezekiel 27:3 (כְּלִי֫לַת יֹ֑פִי), compare Ezekiel 27:4;
Ezekiel 27:11; prince of Tyre, beauty of (his) wisdom Ezekiel 28:7 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3308.htm – 26k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2910. טֻחוֹת (tuchah) — inward parts

 בַּטּ Psalm 51:8 faithfulness thou desirest in the inward parts, ie in the
heart (“” סָתֻם); of seat of wisdom חָכְמָה ׳מִי שָׁת 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2910.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6098. עֵצָה (etsah) — counsel, advice

 2 Kings 18:20 = Isaiah 36:5 (compare Proverbs 20:18 below); also עֲצַת שָׁלוֺם
Zechariah 6:13 counsel of peace; practical wisdom, sagacity Isaiah 19 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6098.htm – 41k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1947. הוֹלֵלוֹת (holelah) — madness

 הֹלֵלוֺת, הוֺלֵלוֺת, and only Ecclesiastes: Ecclesiastes 1:17 and I set
my heart (וָאֶתְּנָה לִבִּי) to know wisdom, and to 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1947.htm – 13k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2449. חָכַם (chakam) — to be wise

 1), been…wise (1), deal wisely (1), exceedingly (1), make me wiser (1), makes
us wiser (1), making wise (1), skillful (1), teach his wisdom (1), wise (16 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2449.htm – 35k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7924. שָׂכְלְתָנוּ (soklethanu) 

 אֲב֗וּךְ נַהִיר֧וּ וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֛וּ וְחָכְמָ֥ה
כְּחָכְמַת־ NAS: illumination, insight and wisdom KJV: light 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7924.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5382. נָשָׁה (nashah) — to forget

 Hiph`il Perfect3masculine singular suffix הִשָּׁהּ חָכְמָה Job 39:17 God
caused her (the ostrich) to forget wisdom, ie did not endow her with it 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5382.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5107. נוּב (nub) — to bear fruit

 כִּי יָנוּב Psalm 62:11 if wealth beareth fruit; Proverbs 10:31 מִּי
צַדִּיק יָנוּב חָכְמָה beareth the fruit of wisdom
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5107.htm – 13k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3453. יָשִׁישׁ (yashish) — aged

 15:10 (“” שָׂב); Job 29:8 (opposed to נערים); בִּישִׁישִׁים חָכְמָה
Job 12:12 among aged men is wisdom (“” אֹרֶח יָמִים 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3453.htm – 13k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3718. כֶּ֫פֶל (kephel) — the double

 elsewhere dual כִּפְלַיִם (compare Arabic ), לְתוּשִׁיָּה Job 11:6 double
in sound wisdom (beyond what Job imagines), of retribution 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3718.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4901. מֶ֫שֶׁך (meshek) — a drawing 

 1 construct מֶשֶׁךְ חָכְמָה מִמְּנִינִים Job 28:18 the drawing up (fishing
up, ie securing after effort) of wisdom is beyond corals. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4901.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1900. הָגוּת (haguth) — meditation, a 

 ָ֯ compare Sta § 304 c ) לִבִּי ׳מִּי יְדַבֵּר חָכְמוֺת וְה
תְבוּנוֺת Psalm 49:4 my mouth shall speak wisdom, and the 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1900.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4912. מָשָׁל (mashal) — a proverb, parable

 מָשָׁל noun masculine Isaiah 14:4 proverb, parable (of sentences constructed
in parallelism, usually of Hebrew Wisdom, but occasionally of other types 
//biblehub.com/Hebrew/4912.htm – 34k

 

NT Greek Concordance

Strong’s Greek: 5428. φρόνησις (phronésis) 

 Strong’s Concordance. phronésis: understanding, practical wisdom. Original Word:
φρόνησις, εως, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/greek/5428.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 5385. φιλοσοφία (philosophia) — the love 

 Strong’s Concordance. philosophia: the love or pursuit of wisdom. Original Word:
φιλοσοφία, ας, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/greek/5385.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 4678. σοφία (sophia) — skill, wisdom

 Strong’s Concordance. sophia: skill, wisdom. Original Word: σοφία, ας, ἡ Part of
Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: sophia Phonetic Spelling: (sof 
//biblehub.com/greek/4678.htm – 39k

Strong’s Greek: 4672. Σολομών (Solomón) — Solomon, a son 

 Zeitrechnung’ in Riehm’s HWB (especially p. 1823f))), built the temple at Jerusalem,
and was distinguished for his magnificence, splendor, and wisdom: Matthew 1 
//biblehub.com/greek/4672.htm – 23k

Strong’s Greek: 1108. γνῶσις (gnósis) — a knowing 

 ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: gnósis Phonetic Spelling:
(gno’-sis) Short Definition: knowledge, doctrine, wisdom Definition: knowledge 
//biblehub.com/greek/1108.htm – 35k

Strong’s Greek: 5457. φῶς (phós) — light

 σκοτία, which see): ἡ ζωή ἦν τό φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων, had the nature of light
in men, ie became the source of human wisdom, John 1 
//biblehub.com/greek/5457.htm – 43k

Strong’s Greek: 4680. σοφός (sophos) — skilled, wise

 Rec. in 1 Timothy 1:17; Jude 1:25; σοφώτερον, contains more wisdom,
is more sagaciously thought out, 1 Corinthians 1:25. 
//biblehub.com/greek/4680.htm – 29k

Strong’s Greek: 1344. δικαιόω (dikaioó) — to show to be 

 probably, δικαιοῦν δίκαιον, Isaiah 53:11): ἡ σοφία ἐδικαιώθη
ἀπό τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς, the wisdom taught and 
//biblehub.com/greek/1344.htm – 51k

Strong’s Greek: 509. ἄνωθεν (anóthen) — from above

 κατερχομένη ἀλλὰ NAS: is not that which comes down from above, but is earthly,
KJV: not from above, but INT: the wisdom from above coming down 
//biblehub.com/greek/509.htm – 22k

Strong’s Greek: 2479. ἰσχύς (ischus) — strength, might

 Revelation 5:12 N-AFS GRK: σοφίαν καὶ ἰσχὺν καὶ τιμὴν NAS: and wisdom and
might and honor KJV: wisdom, and strength, and honour, INT 
//biblehub.com/greek/2479.htm – 20k

Strong’s Greek: 3007. λείπω (leipó) — to leave, leave 

 James 1:5 V-PIM/P-3S GRK: τις ὑμῶν λείπεται σοφίας αἰτείτω NAS: any of
you lacks wisdom, KJV: If any of you lack wisdom, let him 
//biblehub.com/greek/3007.htm – 16k

Strong’s Greek: 4182. πολυποίκιλος (polupoikilos) 

 Ephesians 3:10 Adj-NMS GRK: ἐκκλησίας ἡ πολυποίκιλος σοφία τοῦ NAS:
so that the manifold wisdom of God KJV: the church the 
//biblehub.com/greek/4182.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 4240. πραΰτης (prautés) — gentleness

 James 3:13 N-DFS GRK: αὐτοῦ ἐν πραΰτητι σοφίας NAS: his deeds in the
gentleness of wisdom. KJV: works with meekness of wisdom
//biblehub.com/greek/4240.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 2244. ἡλικία (hélikia) — maturity, ie age

 Luke 2:52 N-DFS GRK: σοφίᾳ καὶ ἡλικίᾳ καὶ χάριτι NAS: in wisdom and stature,
and in favor KJV: in wisdom and stature, and in favour 
//biblehub.com/greek/2244.htm – 19k

Strong’s Greek: 436. ἀνθίστημι (anthistémi) — to set 

 Acts 6:10 V-ANA GRK: οὐκ ἴσχυον ἀντιστῆναι τῇ σοφίᾳ NAS: But they were
unable to cope with the wisdom KJV: not able to resist 
//biblehub.com/greek/436.htm – 25k

Strong’s Greek: 1318. διδακτός (didaktos) — instructed 

 Corinthians 2:13 Adj-DMP GRK: οὐκ ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας NAS:
not in words taught by human KJV: wisdom teacheth, but 
//biblehub.com/greek/1318.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 442. ἀνθρώπινος (anthrópinos) — human

 1 Corinthians 2:13 Adj-GFS GRK: ἐν διδακτοῖς ἀνθρωπίνης σοφίας λόγοις
NAS: taught by human wisdom, KJV: the words which 
//biblehub.com/greek/442.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 3618. οἰκοδομέω (oikodomeó) — to build 

 be completely finished till the return of Christ from heaven, those who, by action,
instruction, exhortation, comfort, promote the Christian wisdom of others 
//biblehub.com/greek/3618.htm – 44k

Strong’s Greek: 4149. πλοῦτος (ploutos) — wealth

 Ὢ βάθος πλούτου καὶ σοφίας NAS: the depth of the riches both KJV: the depth
of the riches both INT: O depth of riches both of wisdom
//biblehub.com/greek/4149.htm – 31k

Strong’s Greek: 4559. σαρκικός (sarkikos) — pertaining to 

 2 Corinthians 1:12 Adj-DFS GRK: ἐν σοφίᾳ σαρκικῇ ἀλλ’ ἐν NAS: sincerity,
not in fleshly wisdom KJV: not with fleshly wisdom, but INT 
//biblehub.com/greek/4559.htm – 19k

Strong’s Greek: 2605. καταγγέλλω (kataggelló) — to 

 1 Corinthians 2:1 V-PPA-NMS GRK: ἢ σοφίας καταγγέλλων ὑμῖν τὸ NAS: of
wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony KJV: of wisdom 
//biblehub.com/greek/2605.htm – 28k

Strong’s Greek: 5485. χάρις (charis) — grace, kindness

 Luke 2:40 N-NFS GRK: σοφίᾳ καὶ χάρις θεοῦ ἦν NAS: in wisdom; and the grace
of God KJV: with wisdom: and the grace of God was INT: with 
//biblehub.com/greek/5485.htm – 52k

Strong’s Greek: 2344. θησαυρός (thésauros) — treasure

 Colossians 2:3 N-NMP GRK: πάντες οἱ θησαυροὶ τῆς σοφίας NAS: all the treasures
of wisdom KJV: hid all the treasures of wisdom and 
//biblehub.com/greek/2344.htm – 27k

Strong’s Greek: 4750. στόμα (stoma) — the mouth

 Luke 21:15 N-ANS GRK: δώσω ὑμῖν στόμα καὶ σοφίαν NAS: for I will give you
utterance and wisdom KJV: will give you a mouth and wisdom 
//biblehub.com/greek/4750.htm – 38k

Strong’s Greek: 574. ἁπλῶς (haplós) — simply, sincerely

 574 /haplṓs (“simply”), used only in Js 1:5, refers to God “generously” giving wisdom –
which is better translated “giving undividedly, openly” (literally 
//biblehub.com/greek/574.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 4679. σοφίζω (sophizó) — to make wise

 NAS Exhaustive Concordance. Word Origin from sophos Definition to make wise
NASB Translation cleverly devised (1), give…wisdom (1). 
//biblehub.com/greek/4679.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 1012. βουλή (boulé) — counsel

 ῆς, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: boulé Phonetic Spelling:
(boo-lay’) Short Definition: counsel, deliberate wisdom Definition: counsel 
//biblehub.com/greek/1012.htm – 21k

Strong’s Greek: 4907. σύνεσις (sunesis) — a running 

 Colossians 1:9 N-DFS GRK: σοφίᾳ καὶ συνέσει πνευματικῇ NAS: spiritual wisdom
and understanding, KJV: and spiritual understanding 
//biblehub.com/greek/4907.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 1726. ἐναντίον (enantion) — before, in 

 Acts 7:10 Adv GRK: καὶ σοφίαν ἐναντίον Φαραὼ βασιλέως KJV: wisdom in the
sight of Pharaoh INT: and wisdom before Pharoah king. 
//biblehub.com/greek/1726.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 3471. μωραίνω (mórainó) — to be foolish

 1 Corinthians 1:20 V-AIA-3S GRK: τούτου οὐχὶ ἐμώρανεν ὁ θεὸς NAS: Has
not God made foolish the wisdom KJV: God made foolish the 
//biblehub.com/greek/3471.htm – 15k
 OT Hebrew Concordance

Strong’s Hebrew: 4093. מַדָּע (madda) — knowledge, thought

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. מַדָּע noun masculine 2Chronicles 1:12 knowledge, thought
(late); מַדָּע2Chronicles 1:10 4t.; מִדָּֽעֲךָ Ecclesiastes 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4093.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1844. דֵּעָה (deah) — knowledge

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. דֵּעָה noun feminine knowledge (strictly Infinitive of
ידע) — דֵּעָה Psalm 73:11 3t.; plural דֵּעוֺת 1 Samuel 2:3 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1844.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1843. דֵּעִי (dea) — knowledge, opinion

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. [דֵּעַ] noun [masculine] knowledge, opinion (late) — only
suffix דֵּעִי Job 32:6 3t., and plural דֵּעִים Job 37:6; all 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1843.htm – 13k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4486. מַנְדַּע (manda) — knowledge, the 

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. מַנְדַּע noun [masculine] knowledge, power of knowing
( 7 J id.; Syriac , ; Biblical Hebrew מַדָּע (late); compare ‘Mandâ 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4486.htm – 13k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1847. דָּ֫עַת (daath) — knowledge

 דַּ֫עַת noun feminine Psalm 139:6 Daniel 12:4 (masculine Proverbs 2:10; Proverbs
14:6, possibly Job 33:3 Ew §174 g ) knowledge (properly Infinitive 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1847.htm – 39k

Strong’s Hebrew: 28. אֲבִידָע (Abida) — “my father took 

 Strong’s Concordance. Abida: “my father took knowledge,” a son of Midian. Original
Word: אֲבִידָע Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/28.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3803. כָּתַר (kathar) — to surround

 but Gr Che יִתְמָּֽאֲרוּ (see I. פאר); יַכְתִּרוּ דָ֑עַת Proverbs
14:18 dubious, Thes De and others throw out knowledge as a 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3803.htm – 16k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8394. תָּבוּן (tebunah) — an 

 3 the object of knowledge Proverbs 2:3; Proverbs 3:13; Proverbs 5:1; Proverbs
14:29; Proverbs 18:2; Proverbs 19:8; Psalm 49:4; Psalm 147:5; Isaiah 40:28; 1 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8394.htm – 34k

Strong’s Hebrew: 998. בִּינָה (binah) — an understanding

 3 the object of knowledge Deuteronomy 4:6; 1 Chronicles 22:12; Job 28:12,20,28;
Job 34:16; Job 38:36; Job 39:17; Proverbs 9:6,10; Proverbs 23:23; Isaiah 11:2 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/998.htm – 32k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3684. כְּסִיל (kesil) — stupid fellow 

 44t.; plural כְּסִילִים Psalm 94:8 25t.; — “” בער Psalm 49:11; Psalm 92:7; Psalm
94:8, elsewhere only in Wisd Lt.; he hates knowledge Proverbs 1 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3684.htm – 30k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4209. מְזִמָּה (mezimmah) — purpose 

 Proverbs 1:4 HEB: לְ֝נַ֗עַר דַּ֣עַת וּמְזִמָּֽה׃ NAS: To the
youth knowledge and discretion, KJV: knowledge and discretion. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4209.htm – 28k

Strong’s Hebrew: 999. בִּינָה (binah) — an understanding

 Translation understanding (1). Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. knowledge. (Aramaic)
corresponding to biynah — knowledge. see HEBREW biynah 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/999.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5276. נָעֵם (naem) — to be pleasant 

 Psalm 141:6; Imperfect3masculine singular ׃יִנְעָ֑ם ׳לְנַפְשְׁךָ
יִנ Proverbs 2:10 (of knowledge); ׳לֶחֶם סְתָרִים יִנ 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5276.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7308. ר֫וּחַ (ruach) — wind, spirit

 1 wind Daniel 2:35; Daniel 7:2. 2 spirit: a. of man, Daniel 5:20; Daniel 7:15;
as faculty of knowledge, יַתִּירא ׳ר Daniel 5:12; Daniel 6:4. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7308.htm – 19k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3504. יִתְרוֹן (yithron) — advantage 

 יִתְרוֺן אֶדֶץ Ecclesiastes 5:8; יִתְרוֺן דַּעַת Ecclesiastes
7:12 advantage of knowledge; וְיִתְרוֺן הַכְשֵׁיר 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3504.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6175. עָרוּם (arum) — crafty, shrewd 

 HEB: אָדָ֣ם עָ֭רוּם כֹּ֣סֶה דָּ֑עַת NAS: A prudent man conceals KJV:
A prudent man concealeth INT: man A prudent conceals knowledge
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6175.htm – 19k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2450. חָכָם (chakam) — wise

 14:16; is silent Proverbs 17:28; hearkens to counsel Proverbs 12:15; hears and
increases in learning Proverbs 1:5; his ear seeketh knowledge Proverbs 18:15; he 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2450.htm – 44k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2331. חָוָה (chavah) — show

 Psalm 19:2 HEB: וְלַ֥יְלָה לְּ֝לַ֗יְלָה יְחַוֶּה־
דָּֽעַת׃ NAS: And night to night reveals knowledge
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2331.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1097. בְּלִי (beli) — a wearing out

 go about naked בְּלִי לְבוּשׁ without clothing, Job 31:39; Job 33:9; Job
34:6; Job 38:2 words בְּלִידַֿעַת without knowledge, Job 39:16 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1097.htm – 32k

Strong’s Hebrew: 191. אֱוִיל (evil) — foolish

 Proverbs 1:7 HEB: חָכְמָ֥ה וּ֝מוּסָ֗ר אֱוִילִ֥ים בָּֽזוּ׃
פ NAS: of knowledge; Fools despise KJV: of knowledge: [but 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/191.htm – 29k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3788. כִּשְׁרוֹן (kishron) — skill 

 Ecclesiastes 2:21 HEB: בְּחָכְמָ֥ה וּבְדַ֖עַת וּבְכִשְׁר֑וֹן
וּלְאָדָ֞ם שֶׁלֹּ֤א NAS: knowledge and skill 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3788.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6383. פֶּ֫לִאי (pili or pali) 

 י; > Qr מֶּ֫לִי(אׅ); feminine פלאיה דַעַת מִמֶּנִּי (ie
מִּלְאִיָה) Psalm 139:6 God’s knowledge; > Qr מְּלִיאָה 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6383.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7119. קַר (qar) — cool

 yə·qar- — 1 Occ. Proverbs 17:27 HEB: [וְקַר־ כ] (יְקַר־ ק) NAS: knowledge,
And he who has a cool INT: has knowledge who who man 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7119.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5557. סָלַף (salaph) — to twist, pervert 

 Proverbs 22:12 HEB: נָ֣צְרוּ דָ֑עַת וַ֝יְסַלֵּ֗ף דִּבְרֵ֥י
בֹגֵֽד׃ NAS: knowledge, But He overthrows the words KJV 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5557.htm – 17k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5945. עֶלְיוֹן (elyown) — Most

 Numbers 24:16 HEB: וְיֹדֵ֖עַ דַּ֣עַת עֶלְי֑וֹן מַחֲזֵ֤ה
שַׁדַּי֙ NAS: the knowledge of the Most High, Who sees KJV 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5945.htm – 32k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5528. סָכַל (sakal) — to be foolish or a 

 Isaiah 44:25 HEB: אָח֖וֹר וְדַעְתָּ֥ם יְשַׂכֵּֽל׃ NAS: their knowledge
into foolishness, KJV: and maketh their knowledge foolish 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5528.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7924. שָׂכְלְתָנוּ (soklethanu) 

 Daniel 5:12 HEB: יַתִּירָ֡ה וּמַנְדַּ֡ע וְשָׂכְלְתָנ֡וּ
מְפַשַּׁ֣ר חֶלְמִין֩ NAS: knowledge and insight 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7924.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7922. שֵׂ֫כֶל (sekel) — prudence, insight

 3 bad sense, cunning, craft, Daniel 8:25. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. discretion,
knowledge, policy, prudence, sense, understanding, wisdom, wise. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7922.htm – 24k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6086. עֵץ (ets) — tree, trees, wood

 Genesis 2:9 HEB: בְּת֣וֹךְ הַגָּ֔ן וְעֵ֕ץ הַדַּ֖עַת ט֥וֹב
NAS: of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge KJV: of the 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6086.htm – 47k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3045. יָדַע (yada) — to know

 1), discovered (3), distinguish (1), endowed (3), experienced (4), experiences
(1), familiar friend (1), find (5), found (1), gain (1), had knowledge (1), had 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3045.htm – 101k

 

 NT Greek Concordance

Strong’s Greek: 1108. γνῶσις (gnósis) — a knowing 

 Strong’s Concordance. gnósis: a knowing, knowledge. Original Word: γνῶσις, εως,
ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: gnósis Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/greek/1108.htm – 35k

Strong’s Greek: 1922. ἐπίγνωσις (epignósis) 

 Strong’s Concordance. epignósis: recognition, knowledge. Original Word: ἐπίγνωσις,
εως, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/greek/1922.htm – 29k

Strong’s Greek: 4924a. sunoida — to share the knowledge of

◄ 4924a. sunoida ►. Strong’s Concordance. sunoida: to share the knowledge
of. Transliteration: sunoida Short Definition: conscious 
//biblehub.com/greek/4924a.htm – 10k

Strong’s Greek: 4747. στοιχεῖον (stoicheion) — one of a 

 the elements (of knowledge). Original Word: στοιχεῖον, ου, τό Part of Speech: Noun,
Neuter Transliteration: stoicheion Phonetic Spelling: (stoy-khi 
//biblehub.com/greek/4747.htm – 24k

Strong’s Greek: 4691. σπερμολόγος (spermologos) — a 

 one who picks up scraps of knowledge. Original Word: σπερμολόγος, ου, ὁ Part of
Speech: Adjective Transliteration: spermologos Phonetic Spelling 
//biblehub.com/greek/4691.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 1097. γινώσκω (ginóskó) — to come to 

 Transliteration: ginóskó Phonetic Spelling: (ghin-oce’-ko) Short Definition: I come
to know, learn, realize Definition: I am taking in knowledge, come to know 
//biblehub.com/greek/1097.htm – 62k

Strong’s Greek: 3129. μανθάνω (manthanó) — to learn

 or nouns: I learn to be so and so; with acc. of person who is the object of
knowledge; aor. sometimes: to ascertain. HELPS Word-studies. 
//biblehub.com/greek/3129.htm – 36k

Strong’s Greek: 4907. σύνεσις (sunesis) — a running 

 cf. Lightfoot on Colossians 1:9; Schmidt, chapter 147, 8.) Strong’s Exhaustive
Concordance. knowledge, understanding. From suniemi 
//biblehub.com/greek/4907.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 56. ἀγνωσία (agnósia) — ignorance

 a neg. prefix) and the same as ginóskó Definition ignorance NASB Translation
ignorance (1), no knowledge (1). Thayer’s Greek Lexicon. 
//biblehub.com/greek/56.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 1990. ἐπιστήμων (epistémón) — knowing 

 It emphasizes understanding that results from building on previous knowledge, which
supports the next stage of understanding (note epi, “upon”). 
//biblehub.com/greek/1990.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 2807. κλείς (kleis) — a key

 power to bring back into life from Hades and to leave there, Revelation 1:18; τῆς
γνώσεως, the ability and opportunity to obtain knowledge, Luke 11 
//biblehub.com/greek/2807.htm – 17k

Strong’s Greek: 4678. σοφία (sophia) — skill, wisdom

 σοφία, σοφίας, ἡ (σοφός), Hebrew חָכְמָה, wisdom, broad and full intelligence
(from Homer down); used of the knowledge of very diverse 
//biblehub.com/greek/4678.htm – 39k

Strong’s Greek: 5235. ὑπερβάλλω (huperballó) — to 

 Matthiae, § 358, 2), ἡ ὑπερβαλλουσα τῆς γνώσεως ἀγάπη Χρσιτου, the
love of Christ which passeth knowledge, Ephesians 3 
//biblehub.com/greek/5235.htm – 16k

Strong’s Greek: 4991. σωτηρία (sótéria) — deliverance 

 Luke 1:77 N-GFS GRK: δοῦναι γνῶσιν σωτηρίας τῷ λαῷ NAS: [the] knowledge
of salvation By the forgiveness KJV: knowledge of 
//biblehub.com/greek/4991.htm – 36k

Strong’s Greek: 5462. φωτισμός (phótismos) 

 2 Corinthians 4:6 N-AMS GRK: ἡμῶν πρὸς φωτισμὸν τῆς γνώσεως NAS: in our
hearts to give the Light of the knowledge KJV: to [give 
//biblehub.com/greek/5462.htm – 14k

Strong’s Greek: 5448. φυσιόω (phusioó) — to puff or blow 

 1 Corinthians 8:1 V-PIA-3S GRK: ἡ γνῶσις φυσιοῖ ἡ δὲ NAS: Knowledge makes arrogant,
but love KJV: Knowledge puffeth up, but INT: knowledge 
//biblehub.com/greek/5448.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 54. ἁγνότης (hagnotés) — purity 

 2 Corinthians 6:6 N-DFS GRK: ἐν ἁγνότητι ἐν γνώσει NAS: in purity, in knowledge,
in patience, KJV: By pureness, by knowledge, INT: in 
//biblehub.com/greek/54.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 1107. γνωρίζω (gnórizó) — to come to 

 τί interrogative Colossians 1:27; περί τίνος, Luke 2:17 L T Tr WH; γνωριζέσθω
πρός τόν Θεόν be brought to the knowledge of God 
//biblehub.com/greek/1107.htm – 37k

Strong’s Greek: 837. αὐξάνω (auxanó) — to make to grow 

 13:32; Mark 4:8 L T Tr WH; 2 Corinthians 10:15; Colossians 1:6 (not Rec.);
εἰς τήν ἐπίγνωσιν τοῦ Θεοῦ unto the knowledge of God 
//biblehub.com/greek/837.htm – 35k

Strong’s Greek: 703. ἀρέτη (areté) — moral goodness, ie 

 2 Peter 1:5 N-DFS GRK: δὲ τῇ ἀρετῇ τὴν γνῶσιν NAS: moral excellence, and
in [your] moral excellence, knowledge, KJV: and to virtue 
//biblehub.com/greek/703.htm – 16k

Strong’s Greek: 3446. μόρφωσις (morphósis) — a forming 

 Romans 2:20 N-AFS GRK: ἔχοντα τὴν μόρφωσιν τῆς γνώσεως NAS: in the Law
the embodiment of knowledge KJV: which hast the form of 
//biblehub.com/greek/3446.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 1466. ἐγκράτεια (egkrateia) — mastery 

 2 Peter 1:6 N-AFS GRK: γνώσει τὴν ἐγκράτειαν ἐν δὲ NAS: and in [your] knowledge,
self-control, and in [your] self-control, KJV: to 
//biblehub.com/greek/1466.htm – 14k

Strong’s Greek: 3708. ὁράω (horaó) — to see, perceive 

 Winer’s Grammar, 273 (257)), John 14:7, 9; in an emphatic sense, of Christ, who
has an immediate and perfect knowledge of God without being taught by another 
//biblehub.com/greek/3708.htm – 51k

Strong’s Greek: 2147. εὑρίσκω, (heuriskó) — to find

 ἐκζητέω, a.)), to get knowledge of, come to know, God, Acts 17:27; εὑρίσκεται
(ὁ Θεός) τίνι, discloses the knowledge of himself to 
//biblehub.com/greek/2147.htm – 58k

Strong’s Greek: 427. ἄνευ (aneu) — without (preposition)

 Part of Speech: Preposition Transliteration: aneu Phonetic Spelling: (an’-yoo) Short
Definition: without, without the cooperation or knowledge of Definition 
//biblehub.com/greek/427.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 2477. ἱστορέω (historeó) — to inquire 

 2477 historéō(from histōr) – properly, learn by inquiring (doing a personal
examination); to gain knowledge by “visiting” which conducts “a full interview 
//biblehub.com/greek/2477.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 2310. θεμέλιος (themelios) — belonging to 

 first principles, of an institution or system of truth: 1 Corinthians 3:10, 12;
the rudiments, first principles, of Christian life and knowledge, Hebrews 6:1 
//biblehub.com/greek/2310.htm – 26k

Strong’s Greek: 4461. ῥαββί (rhabbi) — my master, my 

 a rabbi; a teacher-scholar recognized by the Jewish public for accumulating a great
number of Bible-facts, ie respected for his accumulation of knowledge
//biblehub.com/greek/4461.htm – 23k

Strong’s Greek: 1321. διδάσκω (didaskó) — to teach

 HELPS Word-studies. 1321 didáskō (from daō, “learn”) – to teach (literally, “cause
to learn”); instruct, impart knowledge (disseminate information). 
//biblehub.com/greek/1321.htm – 41k

Strong’s Greek: 3744. ὀσμή (osmé) — a smell

 2 Corinthians 2:14 N-AFS GRK: καὶ τὴν ὀσμὴν τῆς γνώσεως NAS: through us
the sweet aroma of the knowledge KJV: maketh manifest the 
//biblehub.com/greek/3744.htm – 15k

 

 OT Hebrew Concordance

Strong’s Hebrew: 998. בִּינָה (binah) — an understanding

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. בִּינָה noun feminine understanding 1 Chronicles 12:32
28t.; construct בִּינַת Proverbs 30:2; Isaiah 29:14; suffix 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/998.htm – 32k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8394. תָּבוּן (tebunah) — an 

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. תְּבוּנָה noun feminine understanding Deuteronomy
32:28 27t.; suffix תְּבוּנָתִי Proverbs 5:1 7t.; תובנתו Job 26 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8394.htm – 34k

Strong’s Hebrew: 999. בִּינָה (binah) — an understanding

 Strong’s Concordance. binah: an understanding. Original Word: בִּינָה Part of
Speech: Noun Feminine Transliteration: binah Phonetic Spelling: (bee-naw 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/999.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7306. ר֫וּחַ (ruach) — accept, smell 

 Strong’s Concordance. ruach: accept, smell, touch, make of quick understanding.
Original Word: ר֫וּחַ Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: ruach Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7306.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7922. שֵׂ֫כֶל (sekel) — prudence, insight

 Definition prudence, insight NASB Translation discretion (3), insight (4), intelligent*
(1), repute (1), sense (1), shrewdness (1), understanding (4), wisdom (1 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7922.htm – 24k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2638. חָסֵר (chaser) — needy, lacking, in 

 2 Samuel 3:29 in need of bread, so Proverbs 12:9; usually חֲסַרלֵֿב lacking
understanding, sense Proverbs 6:32; Proverbs 7:7; Proverbs 9:4,16 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2638.htm – 25k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4486. מַנְדַּע (manda) — knowledge, the 

 Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. knowledge, reason, understanding. (Aramaic)
corresponding to madda’; wisdom or intelligence — knowledge, reason, understanding 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4486.htm – 13k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1847. דָּ֫עַת (daath) — knowledge

 feminine דַּעַתרֿוּחַ = windy (unreal) knowledge Job 15:2. 2 especially
in Wisdom Literature = discernment, understanding, wisdom: 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1847.htm – 39k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7924. שָׂכְלְתָנוּ (soklethanu) 

 11,12,14. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. understanding. (Aramaic) from
skal; intelligence — understanding. see HEBREW skal Forms 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7924.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2451. חָכְמָה (chokmah) — wisdom

 3 HEB: ר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֑ים בְּחָכְמָ֛ה וּבִתְבוּנָ֥ה
וּבְדַ֖עַת NAS: of God in wisdom, in understanding, KJV: of 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2451.htm – 43k

Strong’s Hebrew: 995. בִּין (bin) — to discern

 1), diligently consider (1), discern (9), discerned (2), discerning (9), discernment
(1), explain (1), explained (1), feel (1), gain understanding (1), gave 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/995.htm – 57k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4129. מוֹדַע (moda) — kinsman

 of her husband; figurative מֹדָע לַבִּינָה תִקְרָא Proverbs 7:4 a kinsman
shalt thou call understanding (“” אֱמֹר לְחָכְמָה 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4129.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8454. תּוּשִׁיָּה (tushiyyah) — sound 

 meaning to substantiate; support or (by implication) ability, ie (direct) help,
(in purpose) an undertaking, (intellectual) understanding — enterprise, that 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8454.htm – 21k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1802. דָּלָה (dalah) — draw

 Proverbs 20:5 HEB: וְאִ֖ישׁ תְּבוּנָ֣ה יִדְלֶֽנָּה׃ NAS: of
understanding draws it out. KJV: of understanding will draw it out. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1802.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4093. מַדָּע (madda) — knowledge, thought

 Daniel 1:4 HEB: דַ֙עַת֙ וּמְבִינֵ֣י מַדָּ֔ע וַאֲשֶׁר֙ כֹּ֣חַ
NAS: with understanding and discerning knowledge, and who 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4093.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7075. קִנְיָן (qinyan) — something gotten 

 omitted); בְּכָלקִֿנְיָֽנְךָ קְנֵה בִינָה Proverbs 4:7 with (or
at the price of) all that thou hast acquired, get understanding
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7075.htm – 19k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3948. לֶ֫קַח (leqach) — a learning 

 חָ֭כָם וְי֣וֹסֶף לֶ֑קַח וְ֝נָב֗וֹן תַּחְבֻּל֥וֹת NAS:
and increase in learning, And a man of understanding KJV: and 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3948.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7116. קְצַר (qatser) — short

 Proverbs 14:29 HEB: רַב־ תְּבוּנָ֑ה וּקְצַר־ ר֝֗וּחַ מֵרִ֥ים
NAS: understanding, But he who is quick-tempered exalts KJV 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7116.htm – 14k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1844. דֵּעָה (deah) — knowledge

 Jeremiah 3:15 HEB: וְרָע֥וּ אֶתְכֶ֖ם דֵּעָ֥ה וְהַשְׂכֵּֽיל׃
NAS: who will feed you on knowledge and understanding
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1844.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6329. פּוּק (puq) — to bring out, furnish 

 Proverbs 3:13 HEB: חָכְמָ֑ה וְ֝אָדָ֗ם יָפִ֥יק
תְּבוּנָֽה׃ NAS: And the man who gains understanding
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6329.htm – 16k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7907. שֶׂכְוִי (sekvi) — perhaps 

 Job 38:36 HEB: מִֽי־ נָתַ֖ן לַשֶּׂ֣כְוִי בִינָֽה׃ NAS: given
understanding to the mind? KJV: understanding to the heart? 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7907.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2940. טָ֫עַם (taam) — taste, judgment

 3:7. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. advice, behavior, decree, discretion,
judgment, reason, taste, understanding. From ta’am; properly 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2940.htm – 21k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8172. שָׁעַן (shaan) — to lean, support 

 Proverbs 3:5 HEB: בִּֽ֝ינָתְךָ֗ אַל־ תִּשָּׁעֵֽן׃ NAS:
your heart And do not lean on your own understanding
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8172.htm – 30k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2486. חָלִ֫ילָה (chalilah) — far be it!

 declare. Job 34:10 HEB: שִׁמְע֫וּ לִ֥י חָלִ֖לָה לָאֵ֥ל
מֵרֶ֗שַׁע NAS: of understanding. Far be 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2486.htm – 27k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4726. מָקוֹר (maqor) — a spring, fountain

 Proverbs 16:22 HEB: מְק֣וֹר חַ֭יִּים שֵׂ֣כֶל NAS: Understanding is a
fountain of life KJV: Understanding [is] a wellspring of life INT 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4726.htm – 27k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2148. זְכַרְיָה (Zkaryah) — Zachariah

 בִּימֵ֣י זְכַרְיָ֔הוּ הַמֵּבִ֖ין בִּרְאֹ֣ת NAS: in the
days of Zechariah, who had understanding KJV: in the days of 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2148.htm – 36k

Strong’s Hebrew: 561. אֵ֫מֶר (emer) — speech, word

 Proverbs 1:2 HEB: וּמוּסָ֑ר לְ֝הָבִ֗ין אִמְרֵ֥י בִינָֽה׃ NAS:
To discern the sayings of understanding, KJV: to perceive the 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/561.htm – 31k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2450. חָכָם (chakam) — wise

 חֲכָמִ֧ים וּנְבֹנִ֛ים וִידֻעִ֖ים NAS: Choose wise and discerning
KJV: Take you wise men, and understanding, INT: Choose men wise 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2450.htm – 44k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3474. יָשַׁר (yashar) — to be smooth 

 Proverbs 15:21 HEB: וְאִ֥ישׁ תְּ֝בוּנָ֗ה יְיַשֶּׁר־
לָֽכֶת׃ NAS: of understanding walks straight. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3474.htm – 36k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4986. מֶ֫תֶק (metheq) — sweetness

 Proverbs 16:21 HEB: יִקָּרֵ֣א נָב֑וֹן וּמֶ֥תֶק שְׂ֝פָתַ֗יִם
יֹסִ֥יף NAS: understanding, And sweetness of speech KJV 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4986.htm – 11k

 

 NT Greek Concordance

Strong’s Greek: 4907. σύνεσις (sunesis) — a running 

 understanding. Original Word: σύνεσις, εως, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine
Transliteration: sunesis Phonetic Spelling: (soon’-es-is) Short 
//biblehub.com/greek/4907.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 801. ἀσύνετος (asunetos) — without 

 Strong’s Concordance. asunetos: without understanding. Original Word: ἀσύνετος,
ον Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: asunetos Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/greek/801.htm – 16k

Strong’s Greek: 3563. νοῦς (nous) — mind, understanding 

 nous ►. Strong’s Concordance. nous: mind, understanding, reason. Original Word:
νοῦς, νοός, νοΐ, νοῦν, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine 
//biblehub.com/greek/3563.htm – 34k

Strong’s Greek: 5428. φρόνησις (phronésis) 

 Strong’s Concordance. phronésis: understanding, practical wisdom. Original Word:
φρόνησις, εως, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/greek/5428.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 5426. φρονέω (phroneó) — to have 

 Strong’s Concordance. phroneó: to have understanding, to think. Original Word: φρονέω
Part of Speech: Verb Transliteration: phroneó Phonetic Spelling 
//biblehub.com/greek/5426.htm – 40k

Strong’s Greek: 1771. ἔννοια (ennoia) — thinking 

 ennoia ►. Strong’s Concordance. ennoia: thinking, thoughtfulness, ie moral
understanding. Original Word: ἔννοια, ας, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine 
//biblehub.com/greek/1771.htm – 14k

Strong’s Greek: 453. ἀνόητος (anoétos) — not 

 Strong’s Concordance. anoétos: not understanding. Original Word: ἀνόητος, ον Part
of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: anoétos Phonetic Spelling: (an 
//biblehub.com/greek/453.htm – 16k

Strong’s Greek: 1271. διάνοια (dianoia) — the mind 

 ας, ἡ Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: dianoia Phonetic Spelling:
(dee-an’-oy-ah) Short Definition: understanding, intellect, mind Definition 
//biblehub.com/greek/1271.htm – 23k

Strong’s Greek: 4908. συνετός (sunetos) — intelligent

 sunetos Phonetic Spelling: (soon-et’-os) Short Definition: intelligent, prudent,
wise Definition: intelligent, prudent, wise, understanding, discerning. 
//biblehub.com/greek/4908.htm – 15k

Strong’s Greek: 1990. ἐπιστήμων (epistémón) — knowing 

 Cognate: 1990 epistḗmōn (an adjective) – thoroughly knowledgeable from gaining
understanding over long-term, personal acquaintance (it is only used in Js 3 
//biblehub.com/greek/1990.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 5424. φρήν (phrén) — midriff, heart, mind 

 Noun, Feminine Transliteration: phrén Phonetic Spelling: (frane) Short Definition:
the mind, intellect Definition: the mind, intellect, thought, understanding 
//biblehub.com/greek/5424.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 3539. νοιέω (noeó) — to perceive, think

 15:17; Matthew 16:11; Mark 7:18; followed by an accusative with an infinitive, Hebrews
11:3; the absolute equivalent to to have understanding: Matthew 16:9 
//biblehub.com/greek/3539.htm – 24k

Strong’s Greek: 5585. ψηφίζω (pséphizó) — to count 

 Revelation 13:18 V-AMA-3S GRK: ἔχων νοῦν ψηφισάτω τὸν ἀριθμὸν NAS:
understanding calculate the number KJV: understanding count 
//biblehub.com/greek/5585.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 878. ἄφρων (aphrón) — without reason 

 describes someone lacking true moderation because they fail to grasp cause-and-effect
relationships – ie willful ignorance in understanding what prompts 
//biblehub.com/greek/878.htm – 21k

Strong’s Greek: 4136. πληροφορία (plérophoria) — full 

 GRK: πλοῦτος τῆς πληροφορίας τῆς συνέσεως NAS: the wealth that comes
from the full assurance of understanding, KJV: riches 
//biblehub.com/greek/4136.htm – 14k

Strong’s Greek: 4920. συνίημι (suniémi) — to set together 

 4920 /syníēmi (“put facts together”) means to arrive at a summary or final
understanding (complete with life-applications). Accordingly 
//biblehub.com/greek/4920.htm – 38k

Strong’s Greek: 802. ἀσύνθετος (asunthetos) — not 

 1:31 Adj-AMP GRK: ἀσυνέτους ἀσυνθέτους ἀστόργους ἀνελεήμονας NAS:
without understanding, untrustworthy, unloving, KJV 
//biblehub.com/greek/802.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 3877. παρακολουθέω (parakoloutheó) 

 the Jahrbb. f. deutsche Theol. for 1871, p. 46f. Strong’s Exhaustive
Concordance. follow, fully know, have understanding. From para 
//biblehub.com/greek/3877.htm – 15k

Strong’s Greek: 3775. οὖς (ous) — the ear

 2. metaphorically equivalent to: the faculty of perceiving with the mind, the faculty
of understanding and knowing: Matthew 13:16; ὁ ἔχων (or εἰ 
//biblehub.com/greek/3775.htm – 33k

Strong’s Greek: 991. βλέπω (blepó) — to look (at)

 a. to have (the power of) understanding: βλέποντες οὐ βλέπουσι, though endued
with understanding they do not understand, Matthew 13:13 
//biblehub.com/greek/991.htm – 48k

Strong’s Greek: 144. αἴσθησις (aisthésis) — perception

 Noun, Feminine Transliteration: aisthésis Phonetic Spelling: (ah’-ee-sthay-sis)
Short Definition: perception Definition: perception, understanding, discernment 
//biblehub.com/greek/144.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 188. ἀκμήν (akmén) — at the present point 

 Matthew 15:16 N-AFS GRK: δὲ εἶπεν Ἀκμὴν καὶ ὑμεῖς NAS: Jesus said, Are you
still lacking in understanding KJV: ye also yet without 
//biblehub.com/greek/188.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 4656. σκοτόω (skotoó) — to darken

 Ephesians 4:18 V-RPM/P-NMP GRK: ἐσκοτωμένοι τῇ διανοίᾳ NAS: being darkened
in their understanding, INT: being darkened in the 
//biblehub.com/greek/4656.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 5432. φρουρέω (phroureó) — to guard

 4:7 V-FIA-3S GRK: πάντα νοῦν φρουρήσει τὰς καρδίας NAS: comprehension,
will guard your hearts KJV: understanding, shall keep your 
//biblehub.com/greek/5432.htm – 16k

Strong’s Greek: 612. ἀπόκρισις (apokrisis) — an 

 Luke 2:47 N-DFP GRK: καὶ ταῖς ἀποκρίσεσιν αὐτοῦ NAS: at His understanding
and His answers. KJV: understanding and answers. 
//biblehub.com/greek/612.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 1108. γνῶσις (gnósis) — a knowing 

 NAS Exhaustive Concordance. Word Origin from ginóskó Definition a knowing, knowledge
NASB Translation knowing (1), knowledge (27), understanding way (1). 
//biblehub.com/greek/1108.htm – 35k

Strong’s Greek: 3949. παροργίζω (parorgizó) — to 

 Romans 10:19 V-FIA-1S GRK: ἔθνει ἀσυνέτῳ παροργιῶ ὑμᾶς
NAS: WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING WILL I ANGER YOU. 
//biblehub.com/greek/3949.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 5461. φωτίζω (phótizó) — to shine, give 

 1 Kings 17:28; others)); to give understanding to:
πεφωτίσμενοι τούς ὀφθαλμούς τῆς καρδίας (Rec. 
//biblehub.com/greek/5461.htm – 26k

Strong’s Greek: 454. ἄνοια (anoia) — folly, foolishness

 Thayer’s Greek Lexicon. STRONGS NT 454: ἄνοια ἄνοια, ἀνοίας, ἡ (ἄνους
(ie Ανως without understanding)), want of understanding 
//biblehub.com/greek/454.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 5046. τέλειος (teleios) — having reached 

 44:17); as respects understanding and goodness, Colossians 4:12;
τέλειος ἄνθρωπος ἐν Χριστῷ, Colossians 1:28 (cf. 
//biblehub.com/greek/5046.htm – 31k

 

 OT Hebrew Concordance

Strong’s Hebrew: 5016. נְבוּאָה (nebuah) — prophecy

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. נְבוּאָה noun masculine prophecy (late: earlier synonym
חָזוֺן); —.  Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. prophecy
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5016.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5001. נָאַם (naam) — to utter a prophecy 

 declare (1). Brown-Driver-Briggs. [נָאַם] verb denominative utter
prophecy, speak as prophet; —. Qal Imperfect3masculine 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5001.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2377. חָזוֹן (chazon) — vision

 3 divine communication in a vision, oracle, prophecy ׳בקשׁ ח מנביא seek a vision
(prophecy) from prophet Ezekiel 7:26; “” דבר (יםׅ 1 Samuel 3:1 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2377.htm – 32k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5030. נָבִיא (nabi) — a spokesman, speaker 

 NAS Exhaustive Concordance. Word Origin from an unused word Definition a spokesman,
speaker, prophet NASB Translation prophecy (1), prophesy (1), prophet (165 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5030.htm – 46k

Strong’s Hebrew: 281. אֲחִיָּה (Achiyyah) — “brother of 

 9:29 HEB: וְעַל־ נְבוּאַ֞ת אֲחִיָּ֣ה הַשִּֽׁילוֹנִ֗י
וּבַחֲזוֹת֙ NAS: and in the prophecy of Ahijah the 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/281.htm – 30k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5752. עוֹדֵד (Oded) — “restorer,” two 

 עֹדֵ֣ד הַנָּבִיא֒ הִתְחַזַּ֗ק NAS: which Azariah the son of Oded the
prophet KJV: and the prophecy of Oded the prophet, INT: these 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5752.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2856. חָתַם (chatham) — to seal, affix a 

 sealing, a deed of sale Jeremiah 32:10,11(opposed to הַגָּלוּי that which was
left open,), Jeremiah 32:14; Jeremiah 32:44, a book of prophecy Daniel 12 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2856.htm – 37k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4853. מַשָּׂא (massa’) — burden

 p. 5 ; corrupt name of Agur’s home or tribe, Kau). Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance.
burden, carry away, prophecy, they set, song, tribute. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4853.htm – 37k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7307. ר֫וּחַ (ruach) — breath, wind 

 a. as inspiring ecstatic state of prophecy, Numbers 11:17,25 (twice in verse); Numbers
11:26,29 (J), 1 Samuel 10:6,10 (compare 1 Samuel 10:5), 1 Samuel 19:20,23 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7307.htm – 71k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1968. הֵימָן (Heman) — an Israelite name

 NAS: of Asaph and of Heman and of Jeduthun, KJV: of Asaph, and of Heman, and
of Jeduthun, INT: the sons of Asaph Heman Jeduthun prophecy
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1968.htm – 24k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7888. שִׁילוֹנִי (Shiloni) — inhab. of 

 יֶעְדִּי NAS: of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions KJV: of Ahijah the
Shilonite, and in the visions INT: the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7888.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3038. יְדוּתוּן (Yeduthun) — leader of 

 NAS: and of Heman and of Jeduthun, who [were] to prophesy KJV: and of Heman, and
of Jeduthun, who should prophesy INT: of Asaph Heman Jeduthun prophecy lyres. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3038.htm – 24k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3348. יָקֶה (Yaqeh) — father of Agur

 KJV: the son of Jakeh, [even] the prophecy: INT: of Agur the son of Jakeh the oracle
declares 1 Occurrence. 3347. 3349. Top of Page. Top of Page.
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3348.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3957. לִשְׁכָּה (lishkah) — room 

 b. connected with Solomon’s temple, where wine offered to Rechabites Jeremiah
35:2,4; compare Jeremiah 35:4; Jeremiah 35:4 one where prophecy read Jeremiah 36 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3957.htm – 36k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3927. לְמוֹאֵל (Lemuel or Lemoel) — king 

 31:1 HEB: דִּ֭בְרֵי לְמוּאֵ֣ל מֶ֑לֶךְ מַ֝שָּׂ֗א NAS: of King
Lemuel, the oracle KJV: of king Lemuel, the prophecy INT: the 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3927.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 7723. שָׁוְא (shav) — emptiness, vanity

 עֵד שׁ Deuteronomy 5:17 (= עֵד שָֽׁקֶר Exodus 20:16); compare ׳שֵׁמַע
שׁ Exodus 23:1 (E); of false (empty) prophecy ׳חֲזוֺן שׁ 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/7723.htm – 34k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3871. ל֫וּחַ (luach) — a tablet, board or 

 ל Exodus 31:18a; Exodus 32:15; compare Exodus 34:29 (all P); הַבְּרִית ׳ל
Deuteronomy 9:9,11,15; tablet for writing prophecy Isaiah 30:8 ׅ 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3871.htm – 33k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5197. נָטַף (nataph) — to drop, drip 

 2 of speech, especially prophecy (without accusative): with עַל against, Amos
7:16 (“” הִנָּבֵא), with אֶלֿ toward, Exodus 21:2 (“” id.), Exodus 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5197.htm – 29k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2900. טוֹבִיָּה (Tobiyyahu or Tobiyyah) 

 עָלַ֔י וְטוֹבִיָּ֥ה וְסַנְבַלַּ֖ט שְׂכָרֽוֹ׃ NAS: against
me because Tobiah and Sanballat KJV: this prophecy against me 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2900.htm – 26k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2574. חֲמָת (Chamath) — a place North of 

 ח is mentioned with דַּמֶּשֶׂק, צֹר, צִידוֺן in prophecy against land
Hadrach (חַדְרָךְ) Zechariah 9:2, compare Jeremiah 49:23. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2574.htm – 31k

Strong’s Hebrew: 748. אָרַך (arak) — to be long

 passed Genesis 26:8 (J); compare Assyrian urriku ûmî, days grew long, Creation Tablet
a see COT Genesis 1:1); of delayed fulfillment of prophecy Ezekiel 12:22 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/748.htm – 37k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2384. חִזָּיוֹן (chizzayon) — vision

 3 divine communication in a vision, oracle, prophecy: “” דברים 2 Samuel
7:17 ( = חזון 1 Chronicles 17:15); יֵבשׁוּ אִישׁ 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2384.htm – 19k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1602. גָּעַל (gaal) — to abhor, loathe

 בְּ); the people, Yahweh’s statutes Leviticus 26:15,43 (H); Ezekiel 16:45 (twice
in verse) women their husbands (figurative, in prophecy against Jerusalem). 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1602.htm – 20k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8612. תֹּ֫פֶת (Topheth) — a place South 

 place Jeremiah 7:32b Jeremiah 19:11; in simile of desecrated city Jeremiah 19:12;
Jeremiah 19:13 (׳מְקוֺם הַתּ); scene of a prophecy of Jeremiah 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8612.htm – 18k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2472. חֲלוֹם (chalom) — a dream

 2 dreams with prophetic meaning, the lowest grade of prophecy (see Br MP
6 ): a. dream of Abimelek Genesis 20:3,6, of Jacob Genesis 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2472.htm – 34k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6098. עֵצָה (etsah) — counsel, advice

 of ׳י Isaiah 40:13; in figure אַנְשֵׁי עֲצָתִי Psalm 119:24 = my counsellors,
said of testimonies of God; = prophecy, מלאכיו ׳ע Isaiah 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6098.htm – 41k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2380. חָזוּת (chazuth) — vision 

 to me; וַתְּהִי לָכֶם חָזוּת הַּכֹּל כְּדִבְרֵי הַסֵּפֶר
הֶחָתוּם Isaiah 29:11 the vision (prophecy) of the 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2380.htm – 15k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1697. דָּבָר (dabar) — speech, word

 2 word of God, as a divine communication in the form of commandments, prophecy,
and words of help to his people, used 394 times. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1697.htm – 88k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3519. כָּבוֹד (kabowd) — glorious

 a. of men, due to a father Malachi 1:6; honour done to David by Nathan’s prophecy
1 Chronicles 17:18; לְ ׳עשׂה כ2Chronicles 32:33 do honour to; לְ 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3519.htm – 53k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5035. נֵ֫בֶל (nebel) — bottle

 וַֽיְהִי֙ NAS: with lyres, harps and cymbals; KJV: with harps, with psalteries,
and with cymbals: INT: prophecy lyres harps and cymbals become. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5035.htm – 35k

 

 

 NT Greek Concordance

Strong’s Greek: 4394. προφητεία (prophéteia) — prophecy

 Strong’s Concordance. prophéteia: prophecy. Original Word: προφητεία, ας, ἡ Part
of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration: prophéteia Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/greek/4394.htm – 28k

Strong’s Greek: 1535. εἴτε (eite) — and if, whether

 GRK: ἡμῖν διάφορα εἴτε προφητείαν κατὰ NAS: given to us, [each of us is
to exercise them accordingly]: if prophecy, KJV: to us 
//biblehub.com/greek/1535.htm – 27k

Strong’s Greek: 4932. συντέμνω (suntemnó) — to cut in 

 time for Antichrist has to ravage the Jews. See also the HELPS prophecy
guide in The Discovery Bible. Ro 9:28: ” for the lord will 
//biblehub.com/greek/4932.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 2268. Ἡσαΐας (Esaias) — Isaiah, an 

 Matthew 13:14 N-GMS GRK: ἡ προφητεία Ἠσαίου ἡ λέγουσα NAS: In their
case the prophecy of Isaiah is being fulfilled, KJV: the 
//biblehub.com/greek/2268.htm – 28k

Strong’s Greek: 378. ἀναπληρόω (anapléroó) — to fill 

 6:14). ἀναπληροῦται ἡ προφητεία the prophecy is fully satisfied, the
event completely corresponds to it, Matthew 13:14. 
//biblehub.com/greek/378.htm – 20k

Strong’s Greek: 4397. προφητικός (prophétikos) 

 Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. prophetic. From prophetes; pertaining to
a foreteller (“prophetic”) — of prophecy, of the prophets. 
//biblehub.com/greek/4397.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 571. ἄπιστος (apistos) — incredible 

 1 Corinthians 14:22 Adj-DMP GRK: ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἀπίστοις ἡ δὲ NAS: who believe
but to unbelievers; but prophecy KJV: but to them that 
//biblehub.com/greek/571.htm – 31k

Strong’s Greek: 851. ἀφαιρέω (aphaireó) — to take from 

 Revelation 22:19 V-FIA-3S GRK: προφητείας ταύτης ἀφελεῖ ὁ θεὸς NAS: takes
away from the words KJV: prophecy, God shall take away 
//biblehub.com/greek/851.htm – 22k

Strong’s Greek: 5507. χίλιοι (chilioi) — a thousand

 showing no one (nothing) is left out. See also “the Millennium” in the HELPS
prophecy-guide. [“Ten” in Scripture can already express 
//biblehub.com/greek/5507.htm – 19k

Strong’s Greek: 921. Βαρνάβας (Barnabas) — Barnabas, an 

 Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. Barnabas. Of Chaldee origin (diakoneo and tacha);
son of Nabas (ie Prophecy); Barnabas, an Israelite — Barnabas. 
//biblehub.com/greek/921.htm – 29k

Strong’s Greek: 1062. γάμος (gamos) — a wedding

 For more discussion, see 4394/prophēteia (“prophecy) and 110/athanasia (“the
divine investiture of immortality”) at the return of Christ. 
//biblehub.com/greek/1062.htm – 23k

Strong’s Greek: 5050. τελείωσις (teleiósis) 

 From phusioo; (the act) completion, ie (of prophecy) verification, or
(of expiation) absolution — perfection, performance. see 
//biblehub.com/greek/5050.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 2078. ἔσχατος (eschatos) — last, extreme

 2078/es x atos (“future things”), the root of “eschatology” is “the study of last
things.” This includes future Bible prophecy, the end-times, and life after 
//biblehub.com/greek/2078.htm – 40k

Strong’s Greek: 4931. συντελέω (sunteleó) — to complete 

 3. to accomplish, bring to fulfilment; passive, to come to pass, Mark 13:4; λόγον,
a word, ie a prophecy, Romans 9:28 (ῤῆμα, Lamentations 2:17). 
//biblehub.com/greek/4931.htm – 20k

Strong’s Greek: 1860. ἐπαγγελία (epaggelia) — a summons 

 every NT use of the word promise (epaggelia) points back to the OT” (Walter C. Kaiser,
Jr., Back Toward the Future, Hints for Interpreting Bible Prophecy, 102 
//biblehub.com/greek/1860.htm – 40k

Strong’s Greek: 4973. σφραγίς (sphragis) — a seal, a 

 “Seal” is often used metaphorically (Ro 4:11; 1 Cor 9:2; 2 Tim 2:19; Rev 9:4). For
more discussion see 4972 (sphragízō), and the HELPS prophecy-guide at “the 
//biblehub.com/greek/4973.htm – 25k

Strong’s Greek: 1802. Ἐνώχ (Enóch) — Enoch, a patriarch

 From this book is taken the ‘prophecy‘ in Jude 1:14f; (cf. BD (American edition),
also Dict. of Chris. Biog., under the word Enoch, The Book of). 
//biblehub.com/greek/1802.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 1936. ἐπίθεσις (epithesis) — a laying on 

 ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν NAS: prophetic utterance with the laying on of hands KJV:
with the laying on of the hands INT: prophecy with laying 
//biblehub.com/greek/1936.htm – 15k

Strong’s Greek: 1955. ἐπίλυσις (epilusis) — a release 

 epílysis (“sound interpretation”) only occurs in 2 Pet 1:20 and refers to “untying
interpretation knots” to discern the true meaning of future Bible prophecy
//biblehub.com/greek/1955.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 4487. ῥῆμα (rhéma) — a word, by impl. a 

 Meyer)); saving truth which has God for its author, Ephesians 6:17; also τοῦ κυρίου,
1 Peter 1:25; words of prophecy, prophetic announcement, τά 
//biblehub.com/greek/4487.htm – 42k

Strong’s Greek: 1313. διάφορος (diaphoros) — varying 

 εἴτε προφητείαν NAS: gifts that differ according KJV: gifts differing according
INT: having been given to us different whether prophecy 
//biblehub.com/greek/1313.htm – 14k

Strong’s Greek: 5083. τηρέω (téreó) — to watch over, to 

 is properly to prevent escaping; and from koustodia, which implies a fortress or
full military lines of apparatus), ie To note (a prophecy; figuratively, to 
//biblehub.com/greek/5083.htm – 49k

Strong’s Greek: 1322. διδαχή (didaché) — doctrine 

 1 Corinthians 14:6 N-DFS GRK: ἢ ἐν διδαχῇ NAS: of prophecy or of
teaching? KJV: or by doctrine? INT: or in teaching. 
//biblehub.com/greek/1322.htm – 33k

Strong’s Greek: 2673. καταργέω (katargeó) — to render 

 13:8 V-FIP-3P GRK: δὲ προφητεῖαι καταργηθήσονται εἴτε γλῶσσαι NAS:
[there are gifts of] prophecy, they will be done 
//biblehub.com/greek/2673.htm – 40k

Strong’s Greek: 1096. γίνομαι (ginomai) — to come into 

 γίνεσθαι Plutarch, Phocylides, 23, 4)); προφητεία ἰδίας ἐπιλύσεως
οὐ γίνεται no one can explain prophecy by his own 
//biblehub.com/greek/1096.htm – 90k

Strong’s Greek: 4151. πνεῦμα (pneuma) — wind, spirit

 such as belongs to the meek, 1 Corinthians 4:21; Galatians 6:1; τό πνεῦμα
τῆς προφητείας, such as characterizes prophecy and by which 
//biblehub.com/greek/4151.htm – 101k

 

 OT Hebrew Concordance

Strong’s Hebrew: 5029. נְבִיָּאה (nebi) — a prophet

 prophets (2). Brown-Driver-Briggs. [נְבִיא] noun masculine prophet (Hebraism? 
2. Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance. prophet. (Aramaic 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5029.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2265. חֲבַקּוּק (Chabaqquq) — a Hebrew 

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. חֲבַקּוּק proper name, masculine the prophet Habakkuk
Habakkuk 1:1; Habakkuk 3:1; 5 Ἀμβακουμ (Assyrian —amba‡û 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2265.htm – 11k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5030. נָבִיא (nabi) — a spokesman, speaker 

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. נָבִיא 306 noun masculine spokesman, speaker, prophet —
׳נ Genesis 20:7 155t.; suffix נְבִיאֶ֑ךָ Exodus 7:1; plural 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5030.htm – 46k

Strong’s Hebrew: 477. אֱלִישָׁע (Elisha) — “God is 

 prophet. Original Word: אֱלִישָׁע Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine
Transliteration: Elisha Phonetic Spelling: (el-ee-shaw’) Short Definition 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/477.htm – 27k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5001. נָאַם (naam) — to utter a prophecy 

 declare (1). Brown-Driver-Briggs. [נָאַם] verb denominative utter
a prophecy, speak as prophet; —. Qal Imperfect3masculine 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5001.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1410. גָּד (Gad) — a son of Jacob, also his 

 2 a prophet in David’s time, called נָבִיא 1 Samuel 22:5, but הַנָּבִיא
חֹזֶה דָוִד 2 Samuel 24:11 & חֹזֵה דָוִיד “” 1 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1410.htm – 30k

Strong’s Hebrew: 256. אַחְאָב (Achab) — “father’s brother 

◄ 256. Achab ►. Strong’s Concordance. Achab: “father’s brother,” a king of Isr.,
also a false prophet 2 false prophet, time of Jeremiah. Jeremiah 29:21,22. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/256.htm – 29k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4872. מֹשֶׁה (Mosheh) — a great Isr. 

 leader, prophet and lawgiver. Original Word: מֹשֶׁה Part of Speech: Proper Name
Masculine Transliteration: Mosheh Phonetic Spelling: (mo-sheh’) Short 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4872.htm – 34k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5151. נַחוּם (Nachum) — an Israelite 

 Strong’s Concordance. Nachum: an Israelite prophet. Original Word: נַחוּם Part
of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration: Nachum Phonetic Spelling 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5151.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 452. אֵלִיָּה (Eliyyah) — “Yah is God 

 a. Elijah, the great prophet of the reign of Ahab 1 Kings 17:1 65t. Kings; 2
Chronicles 21:12; Malachi 3:23. b. Benjamite 1 Chronicles 8:27; 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/452.htm – 29k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3124. יוֹנָה (Yonah) — an Israelite 

 יוֺנָה proper name, masculine prophet, according to 2 Kings 14:25 he was
הַנָּבִיא son of אֲמִתַּי, from גַּת הַחֵפֶר and 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3124.htm – 23k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4105. מְהֵיטַבְאֵל (Mehetabel) 

 1. feminine an Edomite princess Genesis 36:39 (P), 1 Chronicles 1:50. 2. maculine
ancestor of the false prophet Shemaiah Nehemiah 6:10. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4105.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3229. יִמְלָה (Yimla or Yimlah) — father 

 יִמְלָה, יִמְלָא proper name, masculine father of prophet Micaiah
of Israel: — יִמְלָה 1 Kings 22:8,9 5 Ιεμια, 5 L 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3229.htm – 14k

Strong’s Hebrew: 8050. שְׁמוּאֵל (Shemuel) — “name of 

◄ 8050. Shemuel ►. Strong’s Concordance. Shemuel: “name of God,” a prophet
of Isr.  (1901), 102 ff. ); —. 1 great prophet, 11th cent. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/8050.htm – 29k

Strong’s Hebrew: 6602. פְּתוּאֵל (Pethuel) — father of 

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. מְּתוּאֵל proper name, masculine father of
prophet Joel Joel 1:1 ( 5 Βαθουηλ, ie בְּתוּאֵל). 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/6602.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3012. יִגְדַּלְיָ֫הוּ (Yigdalyahu) 

 Strong’s Concordance. Yigdalyahu: “Yah is great,” an Israelite prophet. Original
Word: יִגְדַּלְיָ֫הוּ Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3012.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 1109a. Bilam — a prophet

Bible > Strong’s > Hebrew > 1109a. ◄ 1109a. Bilam ►. Strong’s Concordance. Bilam:
prophet. Transliteration: Bilam Short Definition: Balaam 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/1109a.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 223b. Uriyyahu — “flame of Yah,” a prophet slain 

◄ 223b. Uriyyahu ►. Strong’s Concordance. Uriyyahu: “flame of Yah,” a prophet
slain by Jehoiakim. Transliteration: Uriyyahu Short Definition: Uriah 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/223b.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5986. עָמוֹס (Amos) — an Israelite prophet

 Brown-Driver-Briggs. עָמוֺס proper name, masculine Amos the prophet; —
Amos 1:1; Amos 7:8,10,11,12,14; Amos 8:2, 5 Αμως. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5986.htm – 14k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5161. נֶחֱלָמִי (Nechelami) 

 Strong’s Concordance. Nechelami: descriptive title for a false prophet. Original
Word: נֶחֱלָמִי Part of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: Nechelami 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5161.htm – 12k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4873. מֹשֶׁה (Mosheh) — a great Isr. 

 leader, prophet and lawgiver. Original Word: מֹשֶׁה Part of Speech: Proper Name
Masculine Transliteration: Mosheh Phonetic Spelling: (mo-sheh’) Short 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4873.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2148b. Zekaryah — a Hebrew prophet

 Zekaryah ►. Strong’s Concordance. Zekaryah: a Hebrew prophet. Transliteration:
Zekaryah Short Definition: Zechariah  prophet NASB Translation Zechariah (2). 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2148b.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2292. חַגַּי (Chaggay) — Haggai

 חַגַּי proper name, masculine prophet (Biblical Hebrew id.); — Ezra
5:1; Ezra 6:14. חַד, חֲדָה see אחד  Prophet — Haggai. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2292.htm – 17k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2292a. Chaggay — “festal,” a Hebrew prophet

 Chaggay ►. Strong’s Concordance. Chaggay: “festal,” a Hebrew prophet. Transliteration:
Chaggay Short Definition: Haggai  prophet NASB Translation Haggai (9). 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2292a.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 2292b. Chaggay — a Hebrew prophet

◄ 2292b. Chaggay ►. Strong’s Concordance. Chaggay: a Hebrew prophet. Transliteration:
Chaggay Short Definition: Haggai  prophet NASB Translation Haggai (2). 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/2292b.htm – 9k

Strong’s Hebrew: 4401. מַלְאָכִי (Malaki) — “my 

 Strong’s Concordance. Malaki: “my messenger,” an Israelite prophet. Original Word:
מַלְאָכִי Part of Speech: Proper Name Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/4401.htm – 10k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5416. נָתָן (Nathan) — the name of a number 

 2 the prophet of David’s time 2 Samuel 7:2,3,4,17 = 1 Chronicles 17:1; 1 Chronicles
17:2; 1 Chronicles 17:3; 1 Chronicles 17:15, 2 Samuel 12:1 6t. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5416.htm – 29k

Strong’s Hebrew: 531. אָמוֹץ (Amots) — “strong,” the father 

 2 Kings 19:2 HEB: הַנָּבִ֖יא בֶּן־ אָמֽוֹץ׃ NAS: the prophet
the son of Amoz. KJV: the prophet the son of Amoz. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/531.htm – 19k

Strong’s Hebrew: 3470. יְשַׁעְיָה (Ysha’yah) — Isaiah

 8 ) — 1 Isaiah, son of Amos, the prophet: Isaiah 1:1 15t. Isaiah; 2 Kings 19:2 12t.
Kings; 2 Chronicles 26:22; 32:20,32; 5 Ηξαιας, 9 Isaias. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/3470.htm – 30k

Strong’s Hebrew: 5714. עִדּוֹ (Iddo) — “timely,” the name 

 2 grandfather of prophet Zechariah עִדּוֺ Zechariah 1:1, עִדּוֺא Zechariah
1:7; 5 Αδδω.  KJV: in the story of the prophet Iddo. 
//biblehub.com/hebrew/5714.htm – 20k

 

 NT Greek Concordance

Strong’s Greek: 2268. Ἡσαΐας (Esaias) — Isaiah, an 

 Strong’s Concordance. Esaias: Isaiah, an Israelite prophet. Original Word: Ἠσαΐας,
ου, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Esaias 
//biblehub.com/greek/2268.htm – 28k

Strong’s Greek: 5578. ψευδοπροφήτης 

 Strong’s Concordance. pseudoprophétés: a false prophet. Original Word: ψευδοπροφήτης,
ου, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/greek/5578.htm – 22k

Strong’s Greek: 1158. Δανιήλ (Daniél) — Daniel, the 

 Strong’s Concordance. Daniél: Daniel, the prophet. Original Word: Δανιήλ, ὁ Part
of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Daniél Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/greek/1158.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 2408. Ἱερεμίας (Ieremias) — Jeremiah, an 

 Strong’s Concordance. Ieremias: Jeremiah, an OT prophet. Original Word: Ἰερεμίας,
ου, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Ieremias 
//biblehub.com/greek/2408.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 1666. Ἐλισσαῖος (Elisaios) — Elisha 

 Strong’s Concordance. Elisaios: Elisha, an Israelite prophet. Original Word:
Ἐλισσαῖος, ου, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration 
//biblehub.com/greek/1666.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 2495. Ἰωνᾶς (Iónas) — Jonah, an Israelite 

 Strong’s Concordance. Iónas: Jonah, an Israelite prophet. Original Word: Ἰωνᾶς,
ᾶ, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Iónas Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/greek/2495.htm – 18k

Strong’s Greek: 4396. προφήτης (prophétés) — a prophet 

◄ 4396. prophétés ►. Strong’s Concordance. prophétés: a prophet (an
interpreter or forth-teller of the divine will). Original 
//biblehub.com/greek/4396.htm – 43k

Strong’s Greek: 4545. Σαμουήλ (Samouél) — Samuel, a 

◄ 4545. Samouél ►. Strong’s Concordance. Samouél: Samuel, a prophet
and judge in Isr. Original Word: Σαμουήλ, ὁ Part 
//biblehub.com/greek/4545.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 13. Ἄγαβος (Agabos) — Agabus, a Christian 

 Strong’s Concordance. Agabos: Agabus, a Christian prophet. Original Word: Ἀγαβος,
ου, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Agabos 
//biblehub.com/greek/13.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 919. Βαριησοῦς (Bariésous) — “son of 

 Strong’s Concordance. Bariésous: “son of Joshua,” Bar-Jesus, a false prophet.
Original Word: Βαρϊησοῦς, οῦ, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine 
//biblehub.com/greek/919.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 5617. Ὡσηέ (Hósée) — Hosea, an Israelite 

 Strong’s Concordance. Hósée: Hosea, an Israelite prophet. Original Word: Ὡσηέ, ὁ
Part of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Hósée 
//biblehub.com/greek/5617.htm – 10k

Strong’s Greek: 2243. Ἡλίας (Elias) — Elijah, an Israelite 

 Strong’s Concordance. Elias: Elijah, an Israelite prophet. Original Word: Ἠλίας,
ου, ὁ Part of Speech: Noun, Masculine Transliteration: Elias Phonetic 
//biblehub.com/greek/2243.htm – 31k

Strong’s Greek: 903. Βαλαάμ (Balaam) — Balaam, an 

 Strong’s Concordance. Balaam: Balaam, an unrighteous prophet. Original Word: Βαλαάμ,
ὁ Part of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Balaam 
//biblehub.com/greek/903.htm – 13k

Strong’s Greek: 2493b. Ióél — Joel, an Israelite prophet

◄ 2493b. Ióél ►. Strong’s Concordance. Ióél: Joel, an Israelite prophet.
Transliteration: Ióél Short Definition: Joel  prophet NASB Translation Joel (1). 
//biblehub.com/greek/2493b.htm – 9k

Strong’s Greek: 3483. ναί (nai) — yes, certainly, even so

 INT: They say to him Yes Lord. Matthew 11:9 Prtcl GRK: προφήτην ἰδεῖν
ναί λέγω ὑμῖν NAS: A prophet? Yes, I tell KJV: A prophet
//biblehub.com/greek/3483.htm – 31k

Strong’s Greek: 230. ἀληθῶς (aléthós) — truly

 John 6:14 Adv GRK: Οὗτός ἐστιν ἀληθῶς ὁ προφήτης NAS: This is truly
the Prophet KJV: is of a truth that prophet INT: This is 
//biblehub.com/greek/230.htm – 23k

Strong’s Greek: 2493. Ἰωήλ (Ioel) — Joel

 ὁ Part of Speech: Proper Noun, Indeclinable Transliteration: Ioel Phonetic Spelling:
(ee-o-ale’) Short Definition: Joel Definition: Joel, the Hebrew prophet
//biblehub.com/greek/2493.htm – 10k

Strong’s Greek: 3408. μισθός (misthos) — wages, hire

 Matthew 10:41 N-AMS GRK: ὄνομα προφήτου μισθὸν προφήτου λήμψεται
NAS: a prophet’s reward; and he who receives KJV: a 
//biblehub.com/greek/3408.htm – 32k

Strong’s Greek: 4397. προφητικός (prophétikos) 

 of Speech: Adjective Transliteration: prophétikos Phonetic Spelling: (prof-ay-tik-
os’) Short Definition: prophetic Definition: prophetic, uttered by a prophet 
//biblehub.com/greek/4397.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 820. ἄτιμος (atimos) — without honor 

 Matthew 13:57 Adj-NMS GRK: ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ NAS: to them, A prophet
is not without honor except KJV: is not without honour 
//biblehub.com/greek/820.htm – 14k

Strong’s Greek: 1184. δεκτός (dektos) — acceptable

 Luke 4:24 Adj-NMS GRK: οὐδεὶς προφήτης δεκτός ἐστιν ἐν
NAS: prophet is welcome in his hometown. KJV 
//biblehub.com/greek/1184.htm – 15k

Strong’s Greek: 4053. περισσός (perissos) — abundant

 Matthew 11:9 Adj-NNS-C GRK: ὑμῖν καὶ περισσότερον προφήτου NAS:
I tell you, and one who is more than a prophet
//biblehub.com/greek/4053.htm – 33k

Strong’s Greek: 975. βιβλίον (biblion) — a paper, book

 Luke 4:17 N-NNS GRK: ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου NAS: And the
book of the prophet Isaiah KJV: unto him the book of the 
//biblehub.com/greek/975.htm – 29k

Strong’s Greek: 5310. ὕψιστος (hupsistos) — highest, most 

 Luke 1:76 Adj-GMS GRK: παιδίον προφήτης Ὑψίστου κληθήσῃ προπορεύσῃ
NAS: the prophet of the Most High; For you will go 
//biblehub.com/greek/5310.htm – 21k

Strong’s Greek: 1842. ἐξολοθρεύω (exolethreuó) — to 

 Acts 3:23 V-FIP-3S GRK: προφήτου ἐκείνου ἐξολεθρευθήσεται ἐκ τοῦ
NAS: that prophet shall be utterly destroyed from 
//biblehub.com/greek/1842.htm – 12k

Strong’s Greek: 3689. ὄντως (ontós) — really, truly

 Mark 11:32 Adv GRK: τὸν Ἰωάννην ὄντως ὅτι προφήτης NAS: John to have
been a real prophet. KJV: he was a prophet indeed. 
//biblehub.com/greek/3689.htm – 20k

Strong’s Greek: 4395. προφητεύω (prophéteuó) — to 

 for נִבָּא and הִתְנַבֵּא; Vulg.propheto (three timesprophetizo); to prophesy,
ie to be a prophet, speak forth by divine inspiration; to 
//biblehub.com/greek/4395.htm – 40k

Strong’s Greek: 3913. παραφρονία (paraphronia) 

 2 Peter 2:16 N-AFS GRK: τοῦ προφήτου παραφρονίαν NAS: restrained the madness
of the prophet. KJV: forbad the madness of the prophet
//biblehub.com/greek/3913.htm – 11k

Strong’s Greek: 314. ἀναγινώσκω (anaginóskó) — to 

 Acts 8:28 V-IIA-3S GRK: αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀνεγίνωσκεν τὸν προφήτην NAS: in his
chariot, and was reading the prophet KJV: his chariot 
//biblehub.com/greek/314.htm – 36k

Strong’s Greek: 1415. δυνατός (dunatos) — strong, mighty 

 Luke 24:19 Adj-NMS GRK: ἀνὴρ προφήτης δυνατὸς ἐν ἔργῳ NAS: was a prophet
mighty in deed KJV: was a prophet mighty in deed INT: a 
//biblehub.com/greek/1415.htm – 35k

I suggest using the original languages and the correct etymologies for the different era and dates when these terms were used to obtain the correct definitions for the times these terms were used to be able to understand the correct meanings!

 

Definitions:

Wisdom

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Wisdom [N]

The paradigms of Israel’s religion law, prophecy, and wisdom were not exclusive to Israel but were shared by other ancient Near Eastern cultures. So it was not the form of Israel’s religion that made it distinctive, by its content. Wisdom was a common way of thinking in this part of the ancient world. Briefly, it was a way of viewing and approaching life, which involved instructing the young in proper conduct and morality and answering the philosophical questions about life’s meaning.

The Old Testament.

In the Old Testament wisdom at one level describes skilled arts and artisans, like weavers (Exod 35:25-26 ), architects (Exod 35:30-36:1 ), and goldsmiths (Jer 10:9 ). At a second level, wisdom was keen insight into life and ways of dealing with its problems. Solomon was associated with wisdom in this sense (1 Kings 3:1-15 ; see also 1 Kings 4:32-34 ), although the term used was “understanding,” which occurs often as a synonym of wisdom. At a fourth level, the terms “wisdom” and “wise” apply to men and women who represent a way of thinking and conduct that is orderly, socially sensitive, and morally upright. Thus, the major thrust of wisdom in the Old Testament was a code of moral conduct. This is especially represented by the Book of Proverbs, which gives instruction on personal behavior from the discipline of children (22:6 ) to the golden-rule treatment of one’s neighbor (24:29 ). The goal of wisdom was to build an orderly and functional society that reflected the moral requirements of God as set forth in the Law of Moses. Although Wisdom Literature has no emphasis on Mosaic Law as a code, the moral propositions of that law nevertheless underwrite the moral code of Wisdom Literature (Holiness issues!), particularly the books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes. The closing admonition of Ecclesiastes, only implied in the main body of the book, is to “Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the whole duty of man (Separated unto God, Sanctified and then Consecrated, for His use by obedience to His every word to us, Mt.4:4!)” (12:13 ). The apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus (Jesus ben Sirach) carries this view to the point of equating wisdom with law. Keeping the law produces wisdom, and wisdom is found in the keeping of the law (15:1; 21:11; 24:23-33).

Ecclesiasticus (Sira) 15:1
Parallel Verses
He that feareth the Lord will do good and he that hath the knowledge of the law shall obtain her.
He that feareth the Lord will do good and he that hath the knowledge of the law shall obtain her.
Ecclesiasticus (Sira) 21:11
Parallel Verses
He that keepeth the law of the Lord getteth the understanding thereof: and the perfection of the fear of the Lord is wisdom.
He that keepeth the law of the Lord getteth the understanding thereof: and the perfection of the fear of the Lord is wisdom.

24:23-33,

23All these things are the book of the covenant of the most high God, even the law which Moses commanded for an heritage unto the congregations of Jacob.

24Faint not to be strong in the Lord; that he may confirm you, cleave unto him: for the Lord Almighty is God alone, and beside him there is no other Saviour.

25He filleth all things with his wisdom, as Phison and as Tigris in the time of the new fruits.

26He maketh the understanding to abound like Euphrates, and as Jordan in the time of the harvest.

27He maketh the doctrine of knowledge appear as the light, and as Geon in the time of vintage.

28The first man knew her not perfectly: no more shall the last find her out.

29For her thoughts are more than the sea, and her counsels profounder than the great deep.

30I also came out as a brook from a river, and as a conduit into a garden.

31I said, I will water my best garden, and will water abundantly my garden bed: and, lo, my brook became a river, and my river became a sea.

32I will yet make doctrine to shine as the morning, and will send forth her light afar off.

33I will yet pour out doctrine as prophecy, and leave it to all ages forever.

34Behold that I have not laboured for myself only, but for all them that seek wisdom.

 

Certain theological presuppositions undergird the Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament. First, the individual rather than the nation is addressed. In one sense, wisdom is an appropriate theological complement to the law and the prophets, the latter two religious paradigms basically addressing the nation. That is not to overlook the fact, however, that much in the law and prophets applies to individuals. Rather, it is to recognize that God spoke the law to the nation of Israel, and similarly the prophets spoke basically to the nation. It is not reading too much into Wisdom Literature to say that wisdom’s way of building the society that reflected Yahweh’s will for humankind was to work from the individual up, whereas law and prophecy tended to work from the corporate nation down to the individual. (See Num.15:1-ffs, One Law for all!)

Second, the view of God put forth by Wisdom Literature was God as Creator rather than God as Redeemer, the latter theological construct characterizing law and prophecy. This is evident in the Lord’s redemptive Acts of bringing Israel out of Egypt and giving them the land of Canaan. In contrast, wisdom never makes reference to historical events, but rather describes God as Creator of the world. Again, this view is a helpful theological complement to the Redeemer theology of the Torah and Prophets.

Third, wisdom simplifies religion by describing faith as born out of decisions that are either wise or foolish. There are two ways a person may take, and the choices one makes determine one’s direction. In Proverbs, wisdom personified stands in public places and calls to those who will listen to follow her precepts (1:20-33 ; 8:1-31 ). The disposition that characterizes the wise person is summed up in the phrase the “fear of the Lord.” It is this disposition that is the beginning of wisdom, and it also designates the process by which wisdom matures the individual. Not surprisingly, the fear of the Lord also names the end of the process. Sometimes in the Old Testament this phrase is a general term for religion (since the Old Testament has no specific word for religion), and sometimes, as in the Book of Proverbs, the phrase carries a meaning very close to the New Testament concept of faith.

The wisdom books of the Old Testament are Job, Ecclesiastes, and Proverbs. A few psalms fall into the wisdom category ( 1 , 37 , 49 , 73 ,112 , 127 , 128 ). The emphasis of this material subdivides into two rubrics, one emphasizing the theological problems of life, such as the suffering of the innocent (Job) and the meaning of life (Ecclesiastes). Scholars sometimes call this rubric higher or reflective wisdom. The other rubric is much more practical (Proverbs), and deals with the issues that touch the individual’s life, such as personal industry, integrity, sexual purity, and family relations. This subcategory is sometimes called lower or practical wisdom. The wisdom psalms divide into these categories as well, 37, 49, and 73 representing higher wisdom, and 1, 112, 127, and 128 belonging to the practical category.

The New Testament. In the New Testament the Epistle of James is often considered to incorporate wisdom elements in its practical advice for Christian living. The practical nature of the Beatitudes (Matt 5:3-12 ) also puts them in a category akin to wisdom. Luke took note that Jesus “grew in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men” (2:52, See also 1 Cor.1:24 & 1 Cor.2:1-16 to have the mind of Christ is to know God!). Perhaps this connotes the practical side of Jesus’ teaching, so simple and direct, but it could also include a deeper knowledge of mission and God’s purpose of salvation (Is.28:9-12 or end up as those in verse 13.).

Paul compares the wisdom (sophia, sofiva]) of men to a “wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began” (1 Cor. 2:6-7 ). The “wisdom of men” was human understanding as compared with the “hidden wisdom of God, ” which was a knowledge of God’s plan of salvation through Jesus Christ foreordained before the world began. The ultimate manifestation of wisdom was Jesus Christ (Jn.1:17). Ultimately God revealed his wisdom in the person of his own Son (Flesh, 1 Tm.3:16, Jn.14:7-9, 10:30 & 12:45!), Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 1:24 1 Corinthians 1:30, to know Jesus is to know God with us, our Immanuel, Mt.1:23!).

  1. Hassell Bullock

See also Mind/ReasonProverbs, Theology ofUnderstanding

Bibliography. C. H. Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Poetic Books; J. L. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom; J. H. Walton, Ancient Israelite Literature and Its Cultural Context.

Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.

For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.

 

Know, Knowledge

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Know, Knowledge
The Old Testament. The Hebrew root yada [[;d”y], translated “know”/”knowledge,” appears almost 950 times in the Hebrew Bible. It has a wider sweep than our English word “know,” including perceiving, learning, understanding, willing, performing, and experiencing. To know is not to be intellectually informed about some abstract principle, but to apprehend and experience reality. Knowledge is not the possession of information, but rather its exercise or actualization!

Thus, biblically to know God is not to know about him in an abstract and impersonal manner, but rather to enter into his saving actions (Micah 6:5 ). To know God is not to struggle philosophically with his eternal essence, but rather to recognize and accept his claims. It is not some mystical contemplation, but dutiful obedience.

In the doing of justice and righteousness, Josiah is said to have known God (Jer 22:15-16 ). True knowledge of God involves obeying the stipulations of his covenant. It is expressed in living conformity to his will. The opposite of knowledge is not ignorance, but rebellion (Jer22:11-14 ).

To know is to realize the loss of children ( Isa 47:8 ), grief ( Isa 53:3 ), guilt ( Jer 3:13 ),expediency ( Eccl 8:5 ),conversion ( Jer16:19-21 ), and judgment ( Eze 25:14 ).

The word “know” reflects a variety of skills and professional abilities such as hunting ( Gen25:27 ), sailing ( 1Kings 9:27 ), playing the harp ( 1 Sam 16:16 ),professional mourning ( Amos 5:16 ), and reading ( Isa 29:11 ). It also is used to indicate the ability to distinguish between good and evil ( Gen 3:5 ; Isa 7:15 ), the left and right hand (Deu.5:31-33, Jonah4:11 ), the wise and the foolish ( Eccl 2:19 ), the desirable and the undesirable ( 2 Sam 19:35 ), and life and death ( 2Sam 12:22 ).

The word “know” is used as a euphemism for sex and intercourse: Adam knew his wife Eve and she became pregnant (Gen 4:1 ). Women who have “known” a man are no longer virgins ( Numbers 31:17 Numbers 31:35 ). In his declining days David had an attractive attendant who served him but did not have sexual relationships with him ( 1 Kings 1:4 ). Even sexual perversions such as sodomy ( Gen 19:5 ; Judges 19:22 ) and rape ( Judges 19:25 )are designated by the word “know.”

The word “know” is used also to express acquaintance with a person. Jacob questioned the shepherds of Haran, “Do you know Laban?” ( Gen 29:5 ). The pual participle of the Hebrew word indicates a close friend ( Job 19:14 ; Psalm 55:13 ), a neighbor ( Psalm31:11 ), a companion (Psalms 88:8 Psalms 88:18 ),and a relative ( Ruth2:1 ).

Divine-human relationships are also expressed by this term. The Lord knew Moses very well—”by name” ( Exodus 33:11 Exodus 33:12 Exodus 33:17 ). Moses sought a reciprocal acquaintance with God ( Exod 33:13 ). The psalmist is amazed at God’s intimate knowledge ( Psalm 139:6 ) of his personal life, his daily activities ( 139:1-2 ), even his unuttered and unformed thoughts ( 139:4 ).

The fact that God knows often indicates divine choice. He knew Jeremiah before his birth, singling him out to be a prophet ( Jer 1:5 ). He chose Abraham to be the father of a great nation ( Gen 18:19 ). The statement of am 3:2, “You (Israel) only have I chosen of all the families of the earth, ” indicates divine selection. It is the way of the righteous that the Lord knows, endorses, and cherishes ( Psalm 1:6 ).

“Know” also is used as a treaty term. To know is to acknowledge. Thus when the new king of Egypt did not know Joseph ( Exod 1:8 ) he did not recognize the agreement that had been developed between Joseph and Pharaoh at the time his family came to Egypt. While the ox and donkey know their owner, Israel does not know ( Isa 1:3 ). More than instinct is intended here. Loyalty to the covenant is clearly in mind since the witnesses of that covenant are invoked ( Isa 1:2 ). Moses demands that those who had stood at Mount Sinai and entered into covenant with the Lord acknowledge that agreement and live by it ( Deut 11:1-25 ).

The New Testament. The Greek words commonly translated know are oida [ei [dw] and ginosko [gin wvskw].These words have the various nuances of meaning of the English word “know.” They have been influenced by the Hebrew word yada [[;d”y], such influence having been mediated through the Septuagint, but they also reflect an adaptation demanded by a pagan world ignorant of God’s existence.

The New Testament emphasizes that knowing God is not simply an intellectual apprehension, but a response of faith and an acceptance of Christ. It is he who has made God known ( John 1:18 ). To know Christ is to know God ( John 14:7 ). Eternal life is to know the true God and Jesus Christ ( John 17:3 ). Paul desires to know Christ in his death and resurrection ( Php 3:10 ). Failure to know Jesus as Lord and Messiah (Acts 2:36 ) resulted in his rejection and crucifixion ( 1 Cor 2:8 ).

To know Christ is to know truth ( John 8:32 ). While this is personal, it is also propositional. Knowledge of the truth ( 1 Tim 2:4 ; 2 Tim 2:25 ;3:7 ; Titus 1:1 ) is both enlightenment and acceptance of the cognitive aspects of faith.

Paul uses the rhetorical question, “Don’t you know?” several times in 1Corinthians ( 3:16 ; 5:6 ; 1 Corinthians 6:2 1 Corinthians 6:3 1 Corinthians 6:9 1 Corinthians 6:15 ; 1 Corinthians 9:13 1 Corinthians 9:24 ). This may be an appeal to common knowledge, or a reference to a corpus of teaching that the apostle had communicated.

Affirmations about God’s knowledge are more limited in the New Testament than in the Old Testament. He knows the human heart ( Luke 16:15 ). He knows his children’s needs such as clothing and food ( Matt 6:32 ). He even anticipates our petitions ( Matt 6:8 ). In fact, he knows everything ( 1John 3:20 ).

Jesus uniquely knows God ( John 8:55 —here knowledge and obedience are equated ). He knows the hidden designs of his questioners ( Luke 11:17 ). He is also perceptive of humankind. Nowhere is his penetrating knowledge noted more than it is in the Fourth Gospel ( 2:25 ; 5:42 ;6:64 ; 10:14 John 14 ; John 13:1 John 13:11 ; 18:4 ; 19:28 ).

The limits of human knowledge are recognized in the New Testament. It is not through wisdom that the world knows God, but rather through the divine initiative ( Gal 4:8-9 ). It is through the kerygma (Kerygma (from the Greek word κήρυγμα kérugma) is a Greek word used in the New Testament for “preaching” (see Luke 4:18-19, Romans 10:14, Matthew 3:1). It is related to the Greek verb κηρύσσω kērússō meaning, literally, “to cry or proclaim as a herald” and used in the sense of “to proclaim, announce, preach”.

According to the New Testament (Luke 4:17-21), Jesus launched his public ministry when he entered the synagogue in Nazareth, read from the scroll of Isaiah and identified himself as the subject of Isaiah 61. The text is a programmatic statement of Jesus’ ministry to preach or proclaim – kerygma – good news to the poor, the blind and the captive.), that humans can know God ( 1 Cor 1:20-25 ). Spiritual discernment is not the result of profane reasoning ( 1 Tim 6:20 ). God’s revelation in Christ has made knowledge of him possible. But at best, this knowledge is partial. Perfection in the area of knowledge is reserved for the age to come ( 1 Cor 13:12 ).

Carl Schultz

See also Elect, ElectionGod; Knowledge of God

Bibliography. R. Bultmann, TDNT, 1:689-719; P. R. Gilchrist, TWOT, 1:366-67;C. F. H. Henry and R. K. Harrison, ISBE, 3:48-50; A. Richardson, A Theological Word Book of the Bible, pp. 121-22; H. Ringgren, TDOT, 6:448-81.

Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.

For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.

 

Understanding

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Understanding

The Old Testament. The basic Hebrew word so translated is the verb biyn [yiB] or one of its derivatives, together used some 247 times in the Old Testament. In the Revised Standard Version this root accounts for 89 out of 113 appearances of the word “understanding.” Occasionally leb [bel] (heart/mind) will be rendered “understanding” in contexts where the rational rather than the emotional is stressed ( Job 8:10 ; 12:24).

Biyn [yiB] is associated with the Hebrew substantive beyn [yeB], which means “interval” and, when used as a preposition, “between.” Thus, the basic meaning of biyn [yiB] is to separate, to distinguish. It is perceptive insight with the ability to judge.

Understanding is seen as a gift of God ( Dan 2:21 ) and it is to be prayed for ( Psalm 119:34 ). In answer to the question, “Where shall wisdom or understanding be found?” the response is, “God alone knows” ( Job 28:12 Job 28:20 Job 28:23 ). It also results from the study of the divine precepts ( Psalm 119:104 ) and careful reflection in the sanctuary ( Psalm 73:17 ). Hearing is no assurance of understanding ( Dan 12:8 ).

Understanding has a moral character ( Job 28:28 ). This does not, however, preclude the cognitive ( Psalm 49:3-4 ) for understanding is to be gotten ( Proverbs 4:5 Proverbs 4:7 ), sought ( 23:23 ), and learned ( 4:1 ). This can be seen in references to the understanding of a foreign language ( Isa 33:19 ) and Daniel’s understanding of all the subjects in which he was interrogated by Nebuchadnezzar ( Dan 1:20 ). The emphasis of this word goes beyond collection of data, however. Acquired knowledge must be used and used correctly. The injunction is to trust in the Lord rather than to rely on one’s understanding ( Prov 3:5 ).

A person can perceive data with the senses: with the eyes ( Job 13:1 ; 23:8 ), with the ears ( Job 23:5 ; Prov 29:19 ), with the touch (pots can feel the heat Psalm 58:9 ), and with the taste ( Job 6:30 ).

Understanding can pertain to arts and crafts ( 2 Chron 2:13 ) or to the administrative functions of the king ( 2 Chron 2:12 ) even extended to the messianic king ( Isa 11:2 ). David’s understanding as shepherd of his people is extolled ( Psalm 78:72 ). While artisans have made idols according to their understanding ( Hosea 13:2 ), Isaiah challenges the effectiveness of such effort, noting that artisans can create no gods at all ( 44:17 ). Daniel possesses apocalyptic understanding ( Daniel 9:2 Daniel 9:23 ; 10:1 ).

Understanding is associated with wisdom and personified ( Prov 2:3 ; 7:4 ; 8:14-31 ). While some see this as a hypostasis, it is more likely a poetic personification of an abstract principle.

On the one hand, God is the most important object of understanding ( Isa 43:10 ; Jer 9:24 ), but in an intellectual sense he is beyond a person’s understanding ( Isa 40:28 ). Not after being Baptized in and with His Spirit, the Spirit of the Father, see Mt.10:19 But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak: for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak.

20 For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you!

 

The New Testament. Of the seventeen occurrences of understanding in the Revised Standard Version New Testament, ten are translations of suniemi [sunivhmi] or one of its derivatives. This is the word that the Septuagint uses as a translation of biyn [yiB]. Its meaning is to understand, to gain insight into something.

It can designate a positive quality as when the scribe concurred with Jesus about loving the Lord with “all your understanding” ( Mark 12:33 ) and in Paul’s prayer for the Colossians where he couples it with “spiritual wisdom” ( Col 1:9 ). It can be the means of understanding an important truth ( 2 Tim 2:7 ) or the Lord’s will ( Eph 5:17 ).

There is also a negative quality to this word. Jesus used parables because of his audience’s slowness to understand ( Matt 13:13 ). Even his own disciples did not understand the miracle of loaves and fishes ( Mark 6:52 ). Jesus notes that infants understand God’s program better than the intellectuals ( Matt 11:25 ).

The other significant Greek word rendered “understand” is noeo [noievw] and its derivatives, which refer to rational reflection or inner contemplation. Paul notes the limits of human understanding by noting that the peace of God surpasses it ( Php 4:7 ). The apocalyptic number 666 is a challenge to the person who has understanding ( Rev 13:18 ). The pagans act as they do because they are “darkened in their understanding” ( Eph 4:18 ). On the other hand, John affirms that understanding has been made possible by the revelation of Jesus ( 1 John 5:20 ), and of who He is, as God manifested in the flesh, 1 Tm.3:16 and see Jn.1:18, the begotten God in the Greek manuscripts!

Understanding, then, involves the cognitive, the spiritual, and the moral. While human efforts are called for, the ability to understand comes from God (Jn.6:44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.

45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

46 Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father. Through further verses!). The final test of understanding is obedience to God! This is faith in action, Jms.2:1-ffs!

Carl Schultz

See also Mind/ReasonWisdom

Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.

For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.

 

Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy

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Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy

A prophet was an individual who received a call from God to be God’s spokesperson, often connected with some crisis that was about to occur, and then announced God’s message of judgment and/or deliverance to Israel and the nations. The importance of this office can be seen in the fact that the word “prophet” occurs over 300 times in the Old Testament and almost 125 times in the New Testament. The term “prophetess” appears 6 times in the Old Testament and 2 times in the New Testament.

The Derivation and Meaning of “Prophet.” The derivation and meaning of the word “prophet” has been a matter of controversy for several centuries now with no prospect of closure on this debate. Since most of the solutions to this enigma have been based on etymologies or terms in cognate languages, it is small wonder that no resolution has been forthcoming. Linguists are especially agreed that the most that etymologies can yield are only various suggestions. The only safe course in resolving the meaning of a word is to depend ultimately on usages in contexts.

Early attempts to explain the meaning of prophet were based on trying to derive the noun from a verbal root. The older Gesenius Lexicon edited by Tregelles hypothecated that the noun “prophet” came from the verb naba [[;b”n], in which the original final letter, ayin, was softened into an aleph (naba [[;b”n]); this verb meant “to bubble up” or “boil forth.” Hence the prophet was one who entered an ecstatic state of utterance, pouring forth words automatically under divine inspiration. Almost all scholars now reject such a suggestion because it remains unattested and cannot be demonstrated from known rules of philology. It is found in scriptures to know the correct terminologies as well as true definitions of use!

More recent suggestions have shifted to viewing the word as being denominative in form, as coming from a noun rather than a verb. If the noun nabi [ayib”n], “prophet, ” is the original form, then the suggestion of W. F. Albright that the Akkadian verb nabu, “to call, ” is helpful in suggesting that the passive meaning may well be “one who is called [by God].” If the verb is taken in its active form, the prophet is “an announcer [for God], ” the meaning favored by König, Lindblom, and Westermann. However, there still exists the possibility that an unknown Semitic root exists that perhaps gives the real source from which the noun “prophet” is derived. A messenger of God’s word, who is also given power to perform all that the Lord has given His messenger to do for Him, for reference Elijah, and Elisha!

However, in spite of the absence of any definitive consensus on the real meaning of the word “prophet” there are at least two classical texts that demonstrate the usage of this term and its meaning in the biblical texts. The first is Exodus 7:1-2 (cf. Exod 4:15-16 ): “Then the Lord said to Moses, See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh, and your brother Aaron will be your prophet (Speaker as well as worker of Supernatural Abilities!). You are to say everything I command you, and your brother Aaron is to tell Pharaoh.” What could be clearer? A prophet (nabi [ayib”n]) is one who receives a word from God, just as Moses acted in the place of God in passing on the divine revelations he received from the Lord to his brother Aaron, now functioning as a prophet. Moreover, a prophet is authorized to communicate this divine message to another. Thus Aaron was to function as Moses’ mouthpiece. As all true “Prophets of God” have a word from God to His people and even in many cases to a world that has gone astray and lies in its wickedness see 1 Jn.5:19, to give a call to repentance see Jonah!

The second classical text is Numbers 12:6-8: “When a prophet of the Lord is among you, I reveal myself to him in visions, I speak to him in dreams. But this is not true of my servant Moses; he is faithful in all my house. With him I speak face to face, clearly and not in riddles; he sees the form of the Lord.” In the case of Moses, vis–vis all other prophets, God would speak in direct conversation “face to face.” Other prophets would receive no less a revelation from God, but in their case the means God would use to communicate his word would be the less direct, somewhat enigmatic form of dreams and visions.

Clearly, then, a prophet is an authorized spokesperson for God with a message that originated with God and was communicated through a number of means. When God spoke to these spokespersons, they had no choice but to deliver that word to those to whom God directed it.

The Call of the Prophet. It is impossible to demonstrate from the text of Scripture that each person called to be a prophet received a specific call from God (Not so see Rev.19:10, for all of God’s children who have His Spirit in them are called to prophesy, for Jesus is the Spirit of all Prophecy because He alone is the manifested Father, who is the Holy Spirit, see Jn.4:24 as well as Ac.20;28 & Jn.20:28, when you have found Jesus, you have found the very one who sent Him see Jn.12:45!); however, that fact may be explained by the brevity of our records and by the fact that it was not the purpose of Scripture to record all such details. It is enough for us to know that in many cases there was such a definite call from God, as the testimonies of Elisha, Isaiah, Amos, Hosea, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel demonstrate.

It is true, nevertheless, that there were many who “prophesied” who were not called to be prophets, but were called to be judges, leaders, or priests. Thus, Gideon delivered Israel from the hand of the Midianites, acting on rather detailed instructions from the Lord as to how he was to effect such a deliverance, much as a true prophet would receive revelation from God ( Judges 7:2-8 ). David is specifically said to be a prophet in Acts 2:30, yet his primary call in life was to be king over Israel. And few prophets could rank or rate as high in esteem as Moses, but his call was primarily not to the office of prophet but to being a leader of God’s people in the exodus ( Exod 3:10 ). Therefore, we conclude that many more individuals “prophesied” than those who were specifically called to the office of prophet. Was not Abraham called to be the leader of nations as well as the Father of nations as well as the Lord’s Prophet? See Gen.20:Now therefore restore the man his wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live: and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine!

It is true that Acts 3:24 speaks of “all the prophets from Samuel on,” making Samuel appear to be the first to prophesy (Not so, did not all the 70 prophesy that the Holy Spirit was given to in Num.11:24 And Moses went out, and told the people the words of the Lord, and gathered the seventy men of the elders of the people, and set them round about the tabernacle.

25 And the Lord came down in a cloud, and spake unto him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and gave it unto the seventy elders: and it came to pass, that, when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, and did not cease.

26 But there remained two of the men in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Medad: and the spirit rested upon them; and they were of them that were written, but went not out unto the tabernacle: and they prophesied in the camp.

27 And there ran a young man, and told Moses, and said, Eldad and Medad do prophesy in the camp.

28 And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant of Moses, one of his young men, answered and said, My lord Moses, forbid them.

29 And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou for my sake? Would God that all the Lord’s people were prophets, and that the Lord would put his spirit upon them!). Samuel was not the first person to prophesy, however, for “Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied” (Jude 14). Enoch was well before Abraham’s day, much less Samuel’s. Psalm 105:14-15, in referring to the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, urged, “do my prophets no harm.” Many others could be included in this list of those who exercised this gift prior to the days of Samuel, including Moses, Aaron, Miriam ( Exod 15:20 ), Eldad, Medad, the seventy elders ( Num 11:24-29 ), Balaam (Num. 21-24), Deborah ( Judges 4:4 ), and Minoah and his wife ( Judges 13:3 Judges 13:10 Judges 13:21 ).

The official institution of the office of prophet took place in Moses’ day ( Deut 18:15-22 ): After God had warned Israel about attempting to get supernatural information from bogus pagan sources ( Deut 18:9-14 ), he announced that he would “raise up for [them] a prophet like [Moses] from among [their] own brothers” (v. 15). God would “put [his] words in [the prophet’s] mouth and [the prophet] will tell [the people] everything [God] commanded him” (v. 18).

In Deuteronomy 18:15-22 and Deuteronomy 13:1-5 God listed five certifying signs by which a true prophet of God could be recognized: (1) a prophet must be an Israelite, “from among [his] own brothers” ( Deut 18:15 ) (Balaam is the exception that proves this rule); (2) he must speak in the name of the Lord (“If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name” [ Deut 18:19 ]); (3) he must be able to predict the near as well as the distant future (“If what a prophet proclaims in the name of the Lord does not take place or come true, that is a message the Lord has not spoken” [ Deut 18:22 ]); (4) he must be able to predict signs and wonders ( Deut 13:2 ); and (5) his words must conform to the previous revelation that God has given ( Deut 13:2-3 ).

Elisha is one of the earliest individuals in Scripture to receive a specific call from God to be a prophet. Even though the call was mediated through Elijah, it was nonetheless divine in origin. In 1 Kings 19:15-16, God directed the disheartened Elijah to “Go back the way you came and anoint Elisha the son of Shaphat from Abel Meholah to succeed you as prophet.” While the text does not indicate whether the oil of anointing was poured over the head of Elisha, it does note that Elijah found Elisha plowing in the field, whereupon Elijah “threw his cloak [the prophetic mantle] around [Elisha]” (v. 19) and as a result Elisha immediately left his oxen and ran after Elijah. Indeed, as Elisha later requested, a double portion of the Spirit that rested on Elijah fell on him ( 2 Kings 2:9-14 ). The miracle of the parting of the waters of the Jordan River, with the use of the mantle that had dropped from the ascending Elijah, was God’s further attestation to both the validity and reality of that call of God.

Isaiah describes how he felt when he saw the Lord on a throne in his temple ( Isa 6:1-5 ). It was such an overwhelming experience that he was filled with the impropriety of his being in the presence of a holy God, much less being called to serve such a high and exalted Lord. However, the seraphim took a live coal from the altar and touched Isaiah’s lips, thereby purging his sins and iniquities (vv. 6-7). This was followed by a voice that inquired, “Whom shall I send? And who will go for us?” Isaiah’s answer was immediate: “Here am I. Send me!” (v. 8). Even though this call does not come until we are six chapters into the book, it is not to be concluded, as some interpreters have complained, that this was not Isaiah’s original call, for part of the call of God was in the desperate spiritual vacuum that had grown up in Israel. Isaiah 1-5 sets the backdrop against which the call of God to Isaiah was issued. Isaiah’s call in chapter 6 involved the four significant elements: a theophany, the purification of the prophet’s lips and heart, the commission to “Go!” and the content of the message he was to proclaim.

Amos had not been unemployed, with no other option but to become a prophet. On the contrary, he was a most successful shepherd in Tekoa and a grower of sycamore-fig fruit ( 1:1 ; 7:14 ). It was the Lord who “took” him from tending the flock and the orchards and commanded him, “Go, prophesy to my people Israel” ( 7:15 ). In fact, Amos protested that he was neither a prophet nor the son of a prophet ( 7:14 ); therefore, no one was to think that he merely fell into this occupation, or that he sought it as a career goal. He did not! It was the compelling call of God that forced him to leave what he was doing and apparently doing with no small degree of success and directed him to prophesy in the name of the Lord to a culture that had become sensate and sin-sick.

No less direct was God’s call on Hosea. The first three chapters of his book reveal how his own personal story mirrored the desperate state of affairs that northern Israel found herself in and how deeply offended God, Israel’s spiritual husband, was at all that had happened. Just as resolute as God was in his call of Hosea, so too was Hosea in his resolve to love his wife Gomer even after she had forsaken him for other lovers. After bearing three children to Hosea, whose very names were as symbolic as the message and love of this man for his estranged wife, Hosea wooed back his wife again as God would ultimately his people Israel.

Jeremiah’s call came even before he was formed in the womb ( 1:5a )! In that prenatal period, God set Jeremiah apart and “appointed [him] as a prophet to the nations.” The Lord himself would “put [his] words in [Jeremiah’s] mouth” ( 1:9 ) and make him like a “fortified city, an iron pillar and a bronze wall to stand against the whole land” ( 1:18 ). In retrospect, Jeremiah felt overpowered and powerfully constrained by the Lord. This divine constraint is one of the most characteristic elements in God’s calling of his prophets.

Ezekiel, like Isaiah, was given a vision of the greatness of God and his glory. The whole scene of the throne, with the spectacular radiance of the glory of God, was to assure Ezekiel that nothing less than the personal presence of God could be expected to go with him wherever he went. The throne of God was situated on wheels that were solid and thus able to go in any direction his servant Ezekiel went.

Even though the prophets professed strong feelings of inadequacy and unworthiness ( Isa 6:5 ; Jer 1:6 ), they nevertheless could not resist the strong divine compulsion they were under ( Jer 15:20 ; Ezek 1:3 ; 3:14 ; 8:1 ). Their “accreditation” came from God ( 1 Sam 3:20 “all Israel recognized that Samuel was attested [or better still: was accredited] as a prophet of the Lord” ).

The Terminology of Prophecy. The most common term for prophet (occurring over three hundred times in the Old Testament) is nabi [ayib”n]. The feminine form of this noun, nab”a (h) [h’ayibn], is used six times of women who performed the same task of receiving and proclaiming the message given by God. These women include Miriam, Aaron and Moses’ sister ( Exod 15:20 ); Deborah ( Judges 4:4 ); the prophet Isaiah’s wife ( Isa 8:3 ); and Huldah, the one who interpreted the Book of the Law discovered in the temple during the days of Josiah ( 2 Kings 22:14 ; 2 Chron 34:22 ). There were false prophetesses just as there were false prophets. The prophetess Noadiah was among those who tried to intimidate Nehemiah ( Neh 6:14 ). See also Ac.21:And the next day we that were of Paul’s company departed, and came unto Caesarea: and we entered into the house of Philip the evangelist, which was one of the seven; and abode with him.

And the same man had four daughters, virgins, which did prophesy.

 

Another general designation for these servants of God is “man of God,” appearing over seventy-six times. Nearly half of these references (36) are used of Elisha, fifteen of the unnamed prophet in 1 Kings 13, and the other twenty-five are scattered: five refer to Moses, four to Samuel, seven to Elijah, three to David, two to Shemaiah, and five to unnamed individuals. Another general name for the prophets in Scripture is “My servants.” This title is first used of Moses in Joshua 1:1, but it appears with a fair degree of frequency in Kings, Ezra, and Nehemiah.

The prophets are also given figurative names. Haggai is uniquely called the “Lord’s messenger” ( 1:13 ), while Ezekiel is called a “Shepherd” (chap. 34) and a “Watchman” (chap. 33).

The oldest term, however, is the participial form of the verb “to see,” ro’eh [h,aor]. Apparently this was the older name for a prophet, for 1 Samuel 9:9 notes in an aside, “(Formerly in Israel, if a man went to inquire of God, he would say, Come, let us go to the seer, ‘ because the prophet of today used to be called a seer.)” The term is used in six out of a total of thirteen times in the Old Testament to refer to Samuel, with the only occurrence in the prophetic books proper coming in Isaiah 30:10 “They say to the seers, See no more visions!'” In 2 Kings 17:13 seer is used in parallelism with prophet, thus also showing the equation of the two terms.

Another participial form of the verb “to have a vision” or “to see a vision” is hozeh [h,z’j]. This word can also be translated “seer” or “visionary.” It appears sixteen times in the Old Testament. The priest Amaziah called Amos a hozeh [h,z’j], “seer” ( Amos 7:12 ). The name is also applied to David’s seer, Gad ( 2 Sam 24:11 ), and to Hanani and his son Jehu ( 2 Chron 16:7 ; 19:2 ). Only in 1 Chronicles 29:29 are the three terms, roeh, nabi [ayib”n], and hoeh used together while referring to Samuel, Nathan, and Gad respectively.

A roeh, then, was one who was given divine insight into the past, present, and future so that he could see everything from lost items to the great events of the last days. A nabi [ayib”n] was one who was called of God to announce the divine message, while a hozeh [h,z’j] was given messages mainly in visions.

The Prophetic Activity. It is of more than just passing interest to learn how the prophets received their messages from God and how they delivered them to their intended recipients.

The prophets were neither especially precocious savants who could render wise counsel at will nor were they mere automatons through whom God spoke as they remained in a zombie-like trance. They were mere mortals with differing abilities and with the human capacity to make mistakes. Thus, when the prophet Nathan was asked for his own human opinion as to whether David should build the temple for God, he enthusiastically urged the King to do so. But Nathan spoke as a mere mortal; God had to instruct him to return and give a divine answer to the question prefaced with the prophetic formula of divine authority: “This is what the Lord says!”

Oftentimes a prophet knew only a portion of the divine will. For example, Samuel knew that he was to anoint one of Jesse’s sons, but he did not know which one (1 Sam. 16). His guess was that it would be one of the older sons, but it was only after David, Jesse’s youngest son, stood before him that he knew that he had been looking at external appearances while God looked on the heart of the one who was to be anointed as king.

How did God communicate his word to his prophets? In rare cases, God spoke in an audible voice that could be heard by anyone who might have been in the vicinity. Such was Samuel’s experience when he heard his name being called out in the middle of the night ( 1 Sam 3:3-9 ). Moses spoke directly with God on Mount Sinai ( Exod 19:3-24 ). Elijah would later come to this same cave, where God would converse with his thoroughly disheartened servant ( 1 Kings 19:9-18 ).

More frequently, the prophet received a direct message from God with no audible voice. Instead, there must have been an internal voice by which the consciousness of the prophet suddenly was so heightened that he knew beyond a shadow of a doubt that what he said or what he was to do was exactly what God wanted done in that situation. In 1 Kings 13:20-22, a prophet suddenly rebuked the man of God from Judah with a word that he said an angel had given to him. The fact that what he said came to pass validated his claim that it was from God, even though that same prophet had previously lied to the man he now rebuked in the name of the Lord.

So accurate was this type of communication by a man of God that “Time and again Elisha warned the [Israelite] king so that he was on his guard in such places” ( 2 Kings 6:10 ). When the enraged Syrian king demanded to know where the leak was in his organization, the answer was, “None of us [is on the side of the king of Israel], but Elisha, the prophet who is in Israel, tells the king of Israel the very words you speak in your bedroom” (v. 12).

God also communicated with his prophets in a third way: by opening the prophet’s eyes so that he could see realities that ordinarily would be hidden. Thus, just as the Lord opened the eyes of Balaam’s donkey so that she saw what Balaam at first could not see ( Num 22:31 ), so God opened the eyes of the prophet Elisha’s servant so that he could see the angelic armies of the Lord that surrounded Samaria were indeed greater in number than the Syrian armies ( 2 Kings 6:15-17 ).

The fourth way that God communicated with his prophets was the extensive use of visions, dreams, and elaborate imagery. God’s word was sometimes clothed in symbolic imagery that left a firm imprint on the mind of the prophet and his listeners. Some of the images were explained in the very same context. For example, the head of gold on Daniel’s image was the nation Babylon with its king Nebuchadnezzar while the stone that grew to fill the whole earth was the kingdom of God ( Dan 2:37-39 ). In other instances, the imagery was drawn from revelation that had already been given to God’s people. Thus the Book of Revelation makes extensive use of such Old Testament symbols as the tree of life ( Rev 2:7 ; 22:2 ; cf. Gen 2:9 ; 3:24 ); the key of David ( Rev 3:7 ; cf. Isa 22:22 ); and the four horseman ( Rev 6:1-8 ; cf. Zech 1:8-11 ). Some symbols, however, are deliberately left unexplained (Not so if one knows where to go find the answers in scriptures, that are revealed in the prophets of old!); hence the partial enigmatic quality of prophecy.

The visions God gave did not come at any special time. Some came while the prophet was awake; others came while the prophet was awakened from his sleep or was sleeping. In some cases the prophet was transported in a vision to places far distant from the locale where he was ( Ezek 8:1-3 ; 11:24 ). Yet the prophet always retained the ability to distinguish between his own dreams and those that were given by God.

The fifth and final way that God revealed his message to his prophet was through the use of symbolic actions. Scripture is replete with examples of such activity, which can best be described as outdoor theater, pantomimes, or parables in action. The prophet Micah went about naked as a sign that Samaria would go into captivity ( Micah 1:8 ). Jeremiah wore a yoke in a downtown area to warn Judah that they would shortly be going into exile to Babylon ( Jer 27:2-13 ). Ezekiel was the strangest of them all. He set up a sandbox siege of Jerusalem to portray the city’s pending plight ( Eze 4:1-3 ), then laid on his left side for 390 days and on his right side 40 days with meager siege rations to warn the people what was ahead of them for not repenting of their sin (vv. 4-17).

In all these ways, God wanted his prophets to receive his message and the people to remember what he had said. In delivering these messages, often the prophet would deliver a brief word of rebuke or encouragement, or present a specific order that was to be carried out.

At other times, the prophets were available to answer direct questions, such as the time when the kings of Israel, Judah, and Edom came to Elisha as an embarrassed delegation to ask how they could extricate themselves out of the military mess that they had managed to get themselves into ( 2 Kings 3:11-19 ). Often such answers were followed by longer rejoinders that called for some type of believing or confessing response; more often than not, however, the response was one of unbelief. One outstanding case of unbelief was the instance of the ungodly aide to the king who refused to believe God’s miraculous provision of grain in the midst of a frightening siege ( 2 Kings 7:1-20 ). He lived only long enough to see the prophecy fulfilled as he died in the stampede for the miraculously provided food.

The Interpretation of Prophecy. Biblical prophecy is more than “fore-telling”: two-thirds of its in scripturated form involves “forth-telling,” that is, setting the truth, justice, mercy, and righteousness of God against the backdrop of every form of denial of the same. Thus, to speak prophetically was to speak boldly against every form of moral, ethical, political, economic, and religious disenfranchisement observed in a culture that was intent on building its own pyramid of values vis-a-vis God’s established system of truth and ethics.

However, prediction was by no means absent from the prophetic message. The prophets were conscious of contributing to the ongoing plan of God’s ancient, but constantly renewed promise. They announced God’s coming kingdom and the awful day of the Lord when God’s wrath would be poured out on all ungodliness. In the meantime, before that eschatological moment, there would be a number of divine in-breakings on the historical scene in which the fall of cities such as Samaria, Damascus, Nineveh, Jerusalem, and Babylon would serve as harbingers or fore-shadowing of God’s final intrusion into the historical scene at the end of history. Thus each mini-judgment on the nations or empires of past and present history were earnests and down payments on God’s final day of coming onto the historic scene to end it in one severe judgment and blast of victory. So said all the prophets. And in so saying they exhibited the fact that all their messages were organically related to each other; they were progressively building on one another. And, being focused distinctly on God, they were preeminently theocentric in their organization.

Therefore, the predictive sections of biblical prophecy exhibit certain key characteristics: (1) they are not isolated sayings, but are organically related to the whole of prophecy; (2) they plainly foretell things to come rather than being clothed in such abstruse terminology that they could be proven true even if the opposite of what they appear to say happens; (3) they are designed to be predictions and are not accidental or unwitting predictions; (4) they are written and published before the event, so that it could not be said that it was a matter of human sagacity that determined this would take place; (5) they are fulfilled in accordance with the original utterance, unless expressly attached to a condition; and (6) they do not work out their own fulfillment, but stand as a verbal witness until the event takes place.

History, then, is the final interpreter of prophecy, as Jesus said, “I have told you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe” ( John 14:29 ). Moreover, in addition to leaving the details of fulfillment to be disclosed when the historical process uncovers them, it is to be noted as well that it is not the interpreter who is to receive the plaudits of humans, but Jesus; prophecy points to him. Jesus taught: “I am telling you now before it happens, that when it does happen you will believe that I am He” ( John 13:19 ). Only God can deliver the word of Truth and Jesus is that Spirit without measure, Jn.1:17 seen in Jn.3:34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him (Jesus).

Prophecies may be placed in several categories, based on their fulfillment: unconditional prophecies, conditional prophecies, and sequentially fulfilled prophecies. The first category is the simplest and most straightforward. Included in this category are the divine promises relating to God’s covenant with his people Israel and our salvation. Examples are the covenants made with Abraham and David and the new covenant. However, God’s covenant with the seasons ( Gen 8:21-22 ) and his promise of a new heaven and a new earth are also unconditional prophecies. They are unconditional because they rely upon God’s faithfulness for their implementation and not on our obedience or response. Only they who are in God’s Grace or Favour will be in a position to enjoy these unconditional prophesies, making the possessor of prophesies a conditional response to obedience to the word of God Mt.4:4 seen in Lk.4:4 as well, being in compliance with His word to us!

The best way to demonstrate this one-sided obligation is to point to Genesis 15:12-19, where God told Abraham to cut animals in half and form an aisle down the middle so that the person obligating himself could walk down the aisle outlined by the pieces. In this case, however, only the Lord, here depicted as a smoking fire pot with a blazing torch, moved between the pieces; Abraham did not go between the cut animals. Therefore, God would perform what he promised regardless of what Abraham did or did not do. Not so Abraham was righteous before God in that he did all that the Lord had commanded him to do and would make his sons and servants obey God’s word as well, Gen.17:1! We too are called to walk before our God and be ye perfect as He is perfect, Mt.5:48! See also

Most of the prophecies in the Bible fall into the conditional category in that they pose alternative prospects; depending on whether Israel, the individual, or the nation to whom they were addressed, obeyed and responded to the conditions set forth in them. Two controlling passages that governed much of Old Testament predictions were Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 28. There God promised blessing if Israel obeyed, but punishment if they disobeyed.

Alternative outcomes were predicted for individuals, depending on whether they responded in belief or not. For example, Jeremiah laid before King Zedekiah two possible scenarios ( Jer 38:17-19 ), and he did the same for the people of Judah ( Jer 42:10-16 ).

The clearest statement of this principle of conditional fulfillment can be found in Jeremiah 18:7-10. Here it is announced as a principle that relates to any nation or political entity. It read: “If at any time I announce that a nation or a kingdom is to be uprooted, torn down and destroyed, and if that nation I warned repents of its evil, then I will relent and not inflict on it the disaster I had planned. And if at another time I announce that a nation or kingdom is to be built up and planted, and if it does evil in my sight and does not obey me, then I will reconsider the good I had intended to do for it.” It is this principle that explains why the prophet Jonah was so reluctant to announce God’s imminent judgment on Nineveh. He feared that the message of the threatened judgment might be heeded by the Ninevites, resulting in their repentance, in which case the threatened judgment would be rescinded by God to the great dismay of the aggrieved prophet. It must be carefully noted, however, that not all conditional prophecies have an expressed condition attached to them, just as was the case in the prophecy of Jonah. The conditions are known from the context or from the progress of revelation. The fact that the prophecies were not given with the obligation only resting on God is another sign that such prophecies fell in the conditional category rather than the unconditional one.

One other rather limited number of prophecies must be noted here. In actuality, they are a subcategory of the conditional type: the sequentially fulfilled type. Ezekiel 26:7-14 is an excellent example of this third category. This prophecy warned that many nations would come up against Tyre; however, the focus of the prophecy was on Nebuchadnezzar’s destruction of the mainland city of Tyre on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Suddenly, in the midst of the prediction, there is a sudden switch from the third-person masculine pronoun “he” and “his” to the third-person masculine plural “they.” Some have contended that since Nebuchadnezzar was frustrated because he was unable to capture the people of Tyre, who merely moved from the mainland city of Tyre to an island one-half mile off-shore, that this was an indication that the prophecy was unfulfilled. But it is not an example of an unfulfilled prophecy, for it was fulfilled sequentially. After the Babylonian nation worked its destruction of the mainland city in the 580s B.C.  , Alexander the Great came along in the 330s b.c. and finished the rest of the prophecy by throwing the “stones, timber, and rubble” of the city that Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed “into the sea” in order to build a causeway from the mainland out into the Mediterranean Sea to the island city and capture the city. The prophecy was fulfilled, but it was fulfilled sequentially.

New Testament Prophecy.

Old Testament prophecy came to an end with Malachi, approximately four hundred years before the time of Christ. No formal declaration was made that prophecy had ceased; it was only as time went on that the people began to realize that divine revelation had been absent for a period more protracted than ever before. Three times in the book of 1 Maccabees, written during the events of the revolt against the Syrian Antiochus Epiphanes in days following 168 B.C., the fact that there was no prophet in Israel was noted with sadness (4:46; 9:27; 14:41).

Suddenly, Jesus Christ, the greatest of all the prophets, and the one anticipated in Deuteronomy 18:15-19, appeared on the scene. The title “prophet” is applied to him about a dozen times in the Gospels. His forerunner, John the Baptist, was considered by Jesus to be the last of the prophets who prepared the way for the coming of the Messiah (Is.40:3, who prepared a way for God!). In fact, John the Baptist formed the natural dividing point between the Old Testament prophets and those who were to come in the New Testament (which was tied directly together in the baptism of Jesus tying the New Testament directly to the Old Testament, because Jesus is the manifested word and will of God, Jn.14:1-18, seen in 1 Tm.3:16; so the word of God cannot be broken Jn.10:35!), as Matthew quoted Jesus as saying of John, “For all the Prophets and the Law prophesied until John” ( Matt 11:13 ).

What was the nature of prophecy in the New Testament? Were the New Testament prophets as absolutely authoritative as their predecessors? Yes as all the Apostle’s words will be seen to come true in the rapture and the eschatology that will be revealed in Revelation of Jesus to St. John’s testimonies, see Jn.14:15 and 15:20!

Many interpreters divide the New Testament prophetic phenomena into two classes: (1) the authoritative prophecies demonstrated by the apostles and their associates who functioned much as the Old Testament prophets did; and (2) a type of prophetic activity that made no claims to being the very word of God, but which was for the “strengthening, encouragement and comfort” of believers ( 1 Cor 14:3 ). It is this second type of prophetic activity in the New Testament that has drawn so much current interest, especially if the argument also holds that this gift of prophecy is still operative in the church today (see Jms.1:16 Do not err, my beloved brethren.

17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. As well as Ro.11:29 For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance. To all them who obey Him in word and in deed Col.3:17!)

Usually the case for sustaining the argument that the New Testament apostles are linked with the Old Testament prophets as authoritative recipients of the word of God is made by noting that the Book of Hebrews avoids applying the word “prophet” to Jesus, but uses instead the word “apostle” ( 3:1 “fix your thoughts on Jesus, the apostle (Sent One or Commissioned One), and high priest whom we confess”, to me this shows that it was not Paul who wrote the book Hebrews, as many other instances, such as Heb.2: How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him; shows us that this writer was not an Apostle, because he had herd from them, what he now preaches and teaches that was given to him from others! Just as it is seen in Lk.1: Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us,

Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eyewitnesses, and ministers of the word;

It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,

That thou mightest know the certainty of those things, wherein thou hast been instructed.) Paul would never have written this that was given to him by Jesus Himself as discussed in the book of Galatians, therefore Paul could not be the writer of Hebrews.

What about this other type of Christian prophecy where believers, who prophesy, do not regard themselves as the bearers of the very words of God? Did not the apostle Paul teach in 1 Corinthians 13:8-9 that “where there are prophecies, they will cease For we know in part and we prophesy in part, but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears.” (Paul was talking about when the Lord comes for His Bride who has made herself ready for His appearing and the Spirit is lifted with His children, form off the face of the Earth, then the darkness that Jesus talked about will come and no man will be able to work! Otherwise with the Holy Spirit in us that is of the Father, we then can do greater things than these that Jesus told us we could do for Him, for is there anything that God cannot do? Lk.1:37, then if He be in us we too can do all things through Him being in us, Mt.19:26!) When would that cessation of prophecy take place? After the early church had matured? Or after the completion of the canon of Scripture? Probably neither of these suggested termination points answers the completion of the perfection process (2 Pt.3:18). Perfection cannot be expected before Christ’s second coming. Thus, the believer’s present, fragmentary knowledge, based as it is on the modes of knowledge now available to us, will come to an end.

How long, then, will prophecy last? The argument at this point now shifts to Ephesians 2:20 the church is “built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets” (also see Eph 3:5, See Rev.19:10 & Jn.3:3-8! Prophecy is also being blown where the Spirit needs us to go for Him ot deliver a word of prophecy as well as the Gospel message!). If the apostle Paul refers here to two different functions or gifts the apostles and the prophets of the New Testament earthen the gift of prophecy was so foundational in building the Christian church that it does not continue to our day (Wrong see 1 Cor.1: Paul called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both their’s and our’s:

Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is given you by Jesus Christ;

That in everything ye are enriched by him, in all utterance, and in all knowledge;

Even as the testimony of Christ was confirmed in you:

So that ye come behind in no gift; waiting for the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:

Who shall also confirm you unto the end, that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ! So that when He appears we shall be as He is seen in 1 Jn.3: Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.

And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure. Why, because we walk as Jesus is and told us to do as He did, Jn.14:6, by His indwelling Spirit in us, therefore be ye regenerated in His likeness as truly born-again children of God! Tit.3:1-ffs); its foundational work has been completed. But if, as others contend, the expression “apostles and prophets” refers to one and the same group in a type of figure of speech called a hendiadys, where two distinct words connected by a conjunction are used to express one complex notion (“apostles-who-are-also-prophets”), then the gift may still be operative today. However, no Greek examples of two plural nouns in this type of construction have yet been attested even though the construction is known in other combinations of words.

Two answers are given, therefore, to the question of the termination of New Testament prophecy by modern interpreters. All agree that classical Old Testament prophecy and apostolic prophecy that delivered to us God’s authoritative Scriptures have ceased (see 1 Cor.12:1-ffs, these are the gifts of the Spirit of God, to the church for its edification; with the world growing increasingly more wicked every day why would the Lord take away His power to overcome sin and the flesh? He would not or His promises were all fabrications of man’s vain imagination and in turn would make our God a liar as men are, see Ro.3:4 which is impossible! Tit.1:2 7 Heb.6:18. Others feel, however, that a secondary type of Christian prophecy continues today in the tradition of the New Testament prophet Agabus ( Acts 11:28 ;21:10 ) and the prophets of 1 Corinthians 12-14. This second group is subordinate to the teaching of the apostles and subject to the criticism and judgment of the body as two or three individuals prophesy in the regular meetings of the church.

Walter C. Kaiser, Jr.

See also False ProphetIsraelProphet, Christ as

Bibliography. W. F. Albright, Interpreting the Prophetic Tradition, pp. 151-76; R. L. Alden, New Perspectives on the Old Testament, pp. 131-45; F. D. Farnell, The Master’s Seminary Journal2 (1991): 157-79; H. E. Freeman, An Introduction to the Old Testament Prophets; R. B. Gaffin, Jr.,Perspectives on Pentecost: New Testament Teaching on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit; K. L. Gentry, Jr., The Charismatic Gift of Prophecy: A Reformed Response to Wayne Grudem; W. A. Grudem, The Gift of Prophecy in the New Testament Today; A. J. Heschel, The Prophets, 2 vols.; G. Houston, Prophecy; W. C. Kaiser, Jr., Back Toward the Future: Hints for Interpreting Biblical Prophecy; J. L. Mays and P. J. Achtemeier, eds., Interpreting the Prophets; R. L. Thomas, BSac 149 (1992): 83-96; W. A. Van Gemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word; R. F. White,WTJ54 (1992): 303-20.

Baker’s Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Edited by Walter A. Elwell
Copyright © 1996 by Walter A. Elwell. Published by Baker Books, a division of
Baker Book House Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan USA.
All rights reserved. Used by permission.

For usage information, please read the Baker Book House Copyright Statement.

 

 

Lord’s Way Ministries International

Rev. G. L. Boyett

 

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